Psychometric properties of the Ruminative Response Scale-short form in a clinical sample of patients with major depressive disorder
Received 25 October 2016
Accepted for publication 20 December 2016
Published 12 May 2017 Volume 2017:11 Pages 929—937
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Johnny Chen
Nathalie Parola,1,2,* Xavier Yves Zendjidjian,1,3,* Marine Alessandrini,1 Karine Baumstarck,1 Anderson Loundou,1 Guillaume Fond,4,5 Fabrice Berna,4,6 Christophe Lançon,1–3 Pascal Auquier,1 Laurent Boyer1
1Public Health, Chronic Diseases and Quality of Life – Research Unit EA 3279, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, 2Department of Psychiatry, Sainte-Marguerite University Hospital, Marseille, 3Department of Psychiatry, La Conception University Hospital, Marseille, 4Fondation FondaMental, Créteil, 5Department of Psychiatry and Addictology, Henri Mondor University Hospital, INSERM U955, Eq 15 Genetic Psychiatry and Psychopathology, Paris Est-Créteil University, Créteil, 6Department of Psychiatry, INSERM U1114, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg, Strasbourg University Hospital, Strasbourg, France
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Background: The Ruminative Response Scale (RRS)-short form is one of the most widely used measures of rumination, comprising ten items and two components: reflection and brooding. The aim of this study was to investigate RRS validity and reliability in a clinical sample of French patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
Subjects and methods: Outpatients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of MDD were recruited from a public academic hospital in France. Depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory, anxiety by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – state scale, and quality of life by the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analyses, item-dimension correlations, Cronbach’s α-coefficients, Rasch statistics, and external validity were tested. Differential item functioning analyses were performed for sex.
Results: A total of 109 patients participated. The final reflection–brooding two-factor model of the RRS showed a good fit (root-mean-square error of approximation 0.041, comparative fit index 0.987, standardized root-mean-square residual 0.048) after removing one item (daily diary writing). Internal item consistency and reliability were satisfactory for the two dimensions. External validity testing confirmed that RRS scores were correlated with Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and SF-36 scores. There was no differential item functioning across sexes.
Conclusion: These results demonstrated good scale reliability and validity for assessing rumination in patients with MDD.
Keywords: rumination, response-style theory, major depressive disorder, psychometric properties, validity, reliability