Psychometric Analysis Of The Sleep Hygiene Index And Correlation With Stress And Anxiety Among Saudi University Students
Received 8 July 2019
Accepted for publication 20 September 2019
Published 8 November 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 325—332
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Ms Shreya Arora
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Sutapa Mukherjee
Shahnawaz Anwer,1,2 Ahmad Alghadir,1 Md Dilshad Manzar,3 Majumi M Noohu,4 Mohammed Salahuddin,5 Heng Li2
1Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Building and Real Estate, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; 3Department of Nursing, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Majmaah University, Al Majmaah 11952, Saudi Arabia; 4Centre for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, Jamia Milia Islamia, New Delhi, India; 5Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan-Aman 260, Ethiopia
Correspondence: Shahnawaz Anwer
Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box-10219, Riyadh 11433, Saudi Arabia
Aims: This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI) instrument in screening poor sleep hygiene practices among Saudi university students. As a secondary goal, the association of sleep hygiene practices with stress and anxiety scores were assessed.
Methods: Two-hundred and four healthy college and university students aged 18 to 25 years participated in this cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. Participants were asked to complete the English version of the SHI instrument, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale, and to provide demographic details.
Results: The average scores for the SHI, the GAD-7, and the PSS-10 were 6.6, 5.3, and 16.2, respectively. The internal consistency of the SHI was adequate (McDonald’s Omega 0.76). The corrected item-total correlations for all the items were fair (range, 0.31–0.50). A statistically significant positive correlation/association of the SHI scores with the PSS score, GAD-7, and self-reported poor sleep were obtained in this sample of Saudi university students. Factor analysis favored a 4-factor model of the SHI in the study sample.
Conclusion: The SHI scale demonstrated an adequate level of internal consistency as a self-reported instrument in the assessment of sleep hygiene among Saudi university students. In addition, poor sleep hygiene was correlated with stress and anxiety scores.
Keywords: sleep hygiene, stress, anxiety, mood, university student, adolescent
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