Psychometric Analysis of the Perceived Stress Scale Among Healthy University Students
Received 19 June 2020
Accepted for publication 31 August 2020
Published 19 October 2020 Volume 2020:16 Pages 2389—2396
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Yuping Ning
Shahnawaz Anwer,1,2 Md Dilshad Manzar,3 Ahmad H Alghadir,1 Mohammed Salahuddin,4 Unaise Abdul Hameed5
1Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Building and Real Estate, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; 3Department of Nursing, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Majmaah University, Al Majmaah 11952, Saudi Arabia; 4Pharmacology Division, Department of BioMolecular Sciences, University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS, USA; 5Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
Correspondence: Shahnawaz Anwer
Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 1433, Saudi Arabia
Background: There is a gradual increase in the prevalence of stress during professional courses. Previous studies reported a high incidence of stress among university students. The psychometric properties of the perceived stress scale-10 (PSS-10) have been established in different populations. The current study aimed to assess psychometric properties of the PSS-10 in Saudi university students.
Methods: Healthy university students (n= 192) participated in this cross-sectional study. All the participants were explained about the aim and procedures of the study. Participants were requested to complete the English version of the PSS, the generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7), the sleep hygiene index (SHI), and demographic details.
Results: The range of the PSS-10 total score was 0– 35; 1% reported minimum score of 0, but none reported maximum score of 40. Therefore, there was no issue of ceiling or floor effect in the PSS-10 total score. Positive and significant correlations of the PSS total and the PSS Factor-1 (distress perception) with the GAD-7 total score, SHI item-8 and SHI item-13 score support its convergent validity. Negative or no correlation of the PSS Factor-2 score (coping perception) with the GAD-7 total score, SHI item-8 and SHI item-13 scores demonstrate its divergent validity. The internal homogeneity test indicated moderate to strong positive correlations (r=0.60– 0.82) between the PSS Factors and the items loading on them. The internal consistency test showed a good agreement for the PSS Factor-1 and the PSS Factor-2 scores (Cronbach’s alpha 0.78 and 0.71, respectively), suggesting an acceptable level of consistency. Factor analysis favored a 2-Factor model of the PSS in the Saudi students.
Conclusion: The current study supported the use of the PSS-10 to assess the perceived stress among Saudi university students.
Keywords: PSS, stress, university students, validity, reliability
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