Back to Browse Journals » Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment » Volume 11

Psychobiotics and the gut–brain axis: in the pursuit of happiness

Authors Zhou L, Foster JA

Received 31 December 2014

Accepted for publication 21 January 2015

Published 16 March 2015 Volume 2015:11 Pages 715—723

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S61997

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder

Linghong Zhou,1 Jane A Foster1,2

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Brain-Body Institute, St Joseph’s Healthcare, Hamilton, ON, Canada

Abstract: The human intestine houses an astounding number and species of microorganisms, estimated at more than 1014 gut microbiota and composed of over a thousand species. An individual’s profile of microbiota is continually influenced by a variety of factors including but not limited to genetics, age, sex, diet, and lifestyle. Although each person’s microbial profile is distinct, the relative abundance and distribution of bacterial species is similar among healthy individuals, aiding in the maintenance of one’s overall health. Consequently, the ability of gut microbiota to bidirectionally communicate with the brain, known as the gut–brain axis, in the modulation of human health is at the forefront of current research. At a basic level, the gut microbiota interacts with the human host in a mutualistic relationship – the host intestine provides the bacteria with an environment to grow and the bacterium aids in governing homeostasis within the host. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the lack of healthy gut microbiota may also lead to a deterioration of these relationships and ultimately disease. Indeed, a dysfunction in the gut–brain axis has been elucidated by a multitude of studies linked to neuropsychological, metabolic, and gastrointestinal disorders. For instance, altered microbiota has been linked to neuropsychological disorders including depression and autism spectrum disorder, metabolic disorders such as obesity, and gastrointestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Fortunately, studies have also indicated that gut microbiota may be modulated with the use of probiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplants as a prospect for therapy in microbiota-associated diseases. This modulation of gut microbiota is currently a growing area of research as it just might hold the key to treatment.

Keywords: gut microbiota, mental illness, disease, modulation, therapy, probiotics

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]

 

Readers of this article also read:

Emerging and future therapies for hemophilia

Carr ME, Tortella BJ

Journal of Blood Medicine 2015, 6:245-255

Published Date: 3 September 2015

Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles

Prozorova GF, Pozdnyakov AS, Kuznetsova NP, Korzhova SA, Emel’yanov AI, Ermakova TG, Fadeeva TV, Sosedova LM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:1883-1889

Published Date: 16 April 2014

Methacrylic-based nanogels for the pH-sensitive delivery of 5-Fluorouracil in the colon

Ashwanikumar N, Kumar NA, Nair SA, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5769-5779

Published Date: 15 November 2012

A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

Hu Z, Liao M, Chen Y, Cai Y, Meng L, Liu Y, Lv N, Liu Z, Yuan W

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5719-5724

Published Date: 12 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012

Particle size reduction to the nanometer range: a promising approach to improve buccal absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs

Rao S, Song Y, Peddie F, Evans AM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:1245-1251

Published Date: 20 June 2011

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010