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Psoas Hematoma and Late Femoral Nerve Palsy After Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion and Posterior Spinal Fusion with Instrumentation: A Case Report

Authors Almazrua IS, Almarshad AY, Binzuman G, Alrabiah AM

Received 15 July 2020

Accepted for publication 17 August 2020

Published 4 September 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 127—132


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Clark Hung

Ibrahim S Almazrua,1 Abdullah Y Almarshad,1 Ghadah Binzuman,2 Anwar M Alrabiah1

1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence: Ibrahim S Almazrua
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Tel +966 112162919 Ext. 46930

Introduction: Psoas hematoma is an uncommon complication following spinal surgeries. It has been reported in both extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) and posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation. Minimally invasive techniques are gaining popularity in recent years due to the appealing advantages of reduced operative time, blood loss, hospital stay, and faster recovery.
Case Presentation: We are presenting a case of a 77-year-old male with chronic low back pain, diagnosed to have multilevel degenerative disc disease with central and foraminal disc protrusion at L2-L3, L3-L4, L4-L5 with secondary spinal stenosis, underwent XLIF at L3-L4, L4-L5 and then 2nd stage with posterior L3-L5 fusion with pedicle screws. On the fourth day post-operatively, the patient had flank pain and dropping hemoglobin with femoral nerve palsy symptoms, a CT scan revealed a large psoas hematoma. Conservative management was decided on; a follow-up CT scan and examination showed complete resolution of the hematoma and femoral nerve recovery.
Discussion: The approach to iliopsoas hematoma post spinal surgeries remains controversial. Iliopsoas hematoma should be suspected in any patients post spinal surgeries even with delayed presentations. The decision to proceed with either surgical intervention or conservative management depends on multiple factors, including patient hemodynamic status, progression of collection and femoral nerve palsy.
Conclusion: The exact cause of iliopsoas hematoma post different spinal surgery approaches remains vague. In our opinion, other causes including pre- and post-operative anticoagulants should be investigated. Rushing to drain iliopsoas hematomas in case of femoral nerve palsy might not be the ideal option. Instead, monitoring patient responses to resuscitation and taking a watch and wait approach for femoral nerve palsy might be the proper approach.

Keywords: psoas hematoma, extreme lateral interbody fusion; XLIF, posterior spinal fusion, femoral nerve palsy

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