Protective Effects of Leukadherin1 in a Rat Model of Targeted Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE): Possible Role of P47phox and MDA Downregulation
Received 22 April 2020
Accepted for publication 22 July 2020
Published 31 July 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 411—420
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Ning Quan
Sara Hemmati,1– 3,* Mohammad Amin Sadeghi,1– 3,* Hasan Yousefi-Manesh,2,3 Mostafa Eslamiyeh,4 Ali Vafaei,2,3 Laleh Foroutani,2 Ghazaleh Donyadideh,4 AhmadReza Dehpour,3 Nima Rezaei5– 7
1Molecular Medicine Interest Group (MMIG), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran; 2School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; 5Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children’s Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 6Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 7Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Correspondence: Nima Rezaei Dr Qarib St, Keshavarz Blvd, Tehran 14194, Iran
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Background: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) are involved in pathologic mechanisms underlying demyelination and exacerbation in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. P47phox is the most important subunit of an ROS-producing enzyme (NADPH oxidase) which is reportedly upregulated in MS plaques due to the intense activity of infiltrated immune cells and resident microglia. Leukadherin1 is a specific CD11b/CD18 agonist that inhibits signaling and transmigration of inflammatory cells to sites of injury. Based on this mechanism, we evaluated therapeutic effects of leukadherin1 in an animal model of targeted experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) through focal injection of inflammatory cytokines to the spinal cord.
Methods: For model induction, Lewis rats were first immunized with 15μg MOG 1– 125 emulsion. Twenty days later, animals were subjected to stereotaxic injection of IFNγ and TNFα to the specific spinal area (T8). One day after injection, all animals presented EAE clinical signs, and their behaviors were monitored for eight days through open-field locomotion and grid-walking tests. Leukadherin1-treated animals received daily intraperitoneal injections of 1mg/kg of the drug. The specific spinal tissues were extracted on day 5 in order to measure nitric oxide (NO), malon di-aldehyde (MDA), and TNFα concentrations alongside P47phox real-time PCR analysis. In addition, spinal sections were prepared for immunohistochemical (IHC) observation of infiltrated leukocytes and activated microglia.
Results: Leukadherin1 exhibited promising improvements in EAE clinical scores and behavioral tests. Demyelination, CD45+ leukocyte infiltration, and Iba1+ microglia activation were reduced in spinal tissues of leukadherin1-treated animals. Furthermore, P47phox expression levels, MDA, and NO amounts were decreased in treated animals. However, TNFα concentrations did not differ following treatment.
Conclusion: Based on our results, we suggest that leukadherin1 may be used as a novel therapeutic agent in tackling the clinical challenge of multiple sclerosis, especially during the acute phase of the disease. This effect was possibly mediated through decreased leukocyte infiltration and oxidative stress.
Keywords: multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, leukadherin1, P47phox, targeted EAE, nitric oxide
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