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Protective autophagy or autophagic death: effects of BEZ235 on chronic myelogenous leukemia

Authors Xin P, Xu W, Zhu X, Li C, Zheng Y, Zheng T, Cheng W, Peng Q

Received 7 February 2019

Accepted for publication 5 July 2019

Published 22 August 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 7933—7951

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S204472

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Chien-Feng Li


Pengliang Xin,1 Wenqian Xu,1 Xiongpeng Zhu,1 Chuntuan Li,1 Yan Zheng,1 Tingjin Zheng,2 Wenzhao Cheng,3 Qunyi Peng1

1Department of Haematology, Quanzhou First Hospital Affiliated to Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Central Laboratory, Quanzhou First Hospital Affiliated to Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Stem Cell Translational Research Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, People’s Republic of China

Correspondence: Xiongpeng Zhu
Quanzhou First Hospital Affiliated to Fujian Medical University, No. 250 East Street, Licheng District, Quanzhou City, People’s Republic of China
Tel +86 1 380 599 8581
Email Xiongpengzhu@tom.com

Purpose: To investigate the effects of BEZ235 on chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells.
Methods: MTS assay was used to detect the proliferation of CML cells. The proteins expression were detected by Western blot assay. The effects of BEZ235 on autophagy in CML cells were verified through transmission electron microscopy and evaluated by laser confocal microscopy. Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining flow cytometry was used to detect apoptosis. A xenograft model was established to observe the therapeutic effect of BEZ235 in vivo.
Results: BEZ235 could inhibit the proliferation of CML cells; CQ and 3-MA could increase the proliferation inhibition and Z-VAD-FMK can reduce the proliferation inhibition of BEZ235 on CML cells (P<0.05). Results of TEM showed that the autophagosomes of CML cells treated with BEZ235 increased (P<0.05). The results by confocal microscopy showed that the autophagic activity of K562 cells increased with BEZ235 treatment. When BEZ235 combined with CQ, BEZ235-induced autophagic flow was blocked. FCM results showed that BEZ235 could induces apoptosis in CML cells. Z-VAD-FMK could decrease the apoptosis of CML cells induced by BEZ235. CQ increased the apoptosis of CML cells induced by BEZ235 (P<0.05). Western blot showed that BEZ235 inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT and S6K. BEZ235 alone could upregulate the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and LC3II. When combined with Z-VAD-FMK, the expression of cleaved caspase-3 was lower than that of BEZ235 alone. When combined with CQ, the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and LC3II were higher than those of BEZ235 alone (P<0.05). BEZ235 could inhibit the growth of xenografts of CML cell line.
Conclusion: BEZ235 can inhibit the proliferation of CML cells, induce apoptosis, and enhance autophagy activity. It induces protective autophagy. The combination of CQ can enhance the apoptosis and proliferation inhibition of CML cells induced by BEZ235.

Keywords: BEZ235, chronic myelogenous leukemia, proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy

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