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Proportion of Acute Transfusion Reaction and Associated Factors Among Adult Transfused Patients at Felege Hiwot Compressive Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors Gelaw Y, Woldu B, Melku M

Received 20 February 2020

Accepted for publication 17 June 2020

Published 30 June 2020 Volume 2020:11 Pages 227—236


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Martin H Bluth

Yemataw Gelaw,1,2 Berhanu Woldu,2 Mulugeta Melku2

1Amhara Regional Health Bureau, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 2Department of Hematology & Immunohematology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Yemataw Gelaw
Amhara Regional Health Bureau, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

Introduction: Acute transfusion reactions are adverse events occurring within 24 hrs of transfusion and cause simple-to-severe complications. They may vary with the blood component transfused and recipient factors. In Ethiopia, there is a limited evidence about the incidence and associated factors of transfusion reactions.
Objective: To determine the proportion of acute transfusion reactions and associated factors among adult transfused patients.
Methods: A total of 384 study participants were included in the study. Structured questionnaires were used for socio-demographic and past medical history data collection. Vital signs were measured as a baseline for every study participants and monitored and followed for 24 hrs. Laboratory tests like complete blood count, direct anti-human globulin test and urine hemoglobin were done as a baseline for suspected patients. Cross-match, blood grouping, and blood culture for patients and donors sample were also done for suspected patients. Descriptive statistics, bivariable and multivariable binary logistic regression were analyzed using SPSS version 20. P-value of < 0.05 in the multivariable model was considered as statistically significant.
Results: Acute transfusion reactions were observed in 5.2% of patients. Of total cases of acute transfusion reaction, the majority developed allergic reactions (65%) and febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction (30%). It was significantly associated with transfusion history (AOR=3.4; 95% CI: 1.2– 9.7), abortion history (AOR=5.0; 95% CI: 1.5– 16.4), longer blood storage time (AOR=5.1; 95% CI: 1.7– 15.2) and receiving three or more unit of blood (AOR= 4.1; 95% CI: 1.5– 11.2).
Conclusion: Acute transfusion reactions were observed in 5.2% of patients (allergic reactions (65%), febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction (30%) and alloimmunization (5%)). Patients with a history of transfusion, abortion, transfused with blood stored ≥ 14 days and multi-transfused patients should be closely monitored.

Keywords: acute transfusion reaction, adverse event, blood transfusion, transfusion reaction, Ethiopia

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