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Prophylaxis and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Authors Chen R, Campbell J, Chen B

Received 2 December 2014

Accepted for publication 22 December 2014

Published 10 February 2015 Volume 2015:8 Pages 405—412


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Daniele Santini

Runzhe Chen,1 Jos L Campbell,2,3 Baoan Chen1

1Department of Hematology and Oncology (Key Department of Jiangsu Medicine), Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Stanford University Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 3Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, School of Applied Science, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Abstract: Relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia remains a major cause of death in patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Several factors may affect the concurrence and outcome of relapse, which include graft-versus-host disease, minimal residual disease or intrinsic factors of the disease, and transplantation characteristics. The mainstay of relapse prevention and treatment is donor leukocyte infusions, targeted therapies, second transplantation, and other novel therapies. In this review, we mainly focus on addressing the impact of graft-versus-host disease on relapse and the prophylaxis and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia relapse following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We also make recommendations for critical strategies to prevent relapse after transplantation and challenges that must be addressed to ensure success.

Keywords: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, relapse, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, prevention, therapy

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