Profiles of gyrA Mutations and Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes in Shigella Isolates with Different Levels of Fluoroquinolone Susceptibility
Received 11 April 2020
Accepted for publication 25 June 2020
Published 12 July 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 2285—2290
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony
Xuxia Yu,1 Danyang Zhang,2 Qifa Song3
1Department of Hospital Infection, Ningbo City First Hospital, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Microbiology, Ningbo Municipal Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China; 3Central Laboratory, Ningbo City First Hospital, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China
Correspondence: Qifa Song Email email@example.com
Purpose: Fluoroquinolone-resistant Shigella is considered a serious public health problem and has been put on the WHO global priority list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This study was aimed to investigate the fluoroquinolone resistance in Shigella and its relevant genetic mechanisms.
Materials and Methods: Shigella isolates that were isolated from diarrheal patient’s feces in Ningbo China from 2011 to 2018 were tested for susceptibility to ampicillin, gentamicin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and cefotaxime. Genes related to quinolone resistance were amplified by PCR.
Results: A total of 118 Shigella isolates were collected, including 76 S. flexneri isolates, 40 S. sonnei isolates, and 2 S. boydii isolates. Ciprofloxacin susceptibility test identified 10 (9%) susceptible, 65 (55%) intermediate, and 43 (36%) resistant isolates. Of 76 S. flexneri isolates, 37 were ciprofloxacin resistant, a prevalence significantly higher than 6 of 40 S. sonnei isolates (P=0.01). The isolates collected during 2014– 2018 displayed a significant increase in the prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance (P=0.05) than those collected during 2011– 2013. All the ciprofloxacin-intermediate and resistant isolates had mutations of gyrA(S83L) and parC (S80I), whereas only the ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates had gyrA (D87N) mutation and qnrB gene. Additionally, 30% of the ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates were positive for aac(6´)-Ib-cr gene.
Conclusion: This study shows the currently increasing prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance. The reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility is highly associated with gyrA (S83L) and parC (S80I) mutations, while the fluoroquinolone resistance is highly associated with gyrA (D87N) mutation, qnrB gene and perhaps aac(6´)-Ib-cr gene.
Keywords: Shigella, ciprofloxacin resistance, gyrA mutations, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance, PMQR, quinolone resistance-determining region, QRDR
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