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Profile of oritavancin and its potential in the treatment of acute bacterial skin structure infections

Authors Mitra S, Saeed U, Havlichek D, Stein GE

Received 5 March 2015

Accepted for publication 7 April 2015

Published 6 July 2015 Volume 2015:8 Pages 189—197

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S69412

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony

Subhashis Mitra, Usman Saeed, Daniel H Havlichek, Gary E Stein

Department of Infectious Diseases, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA

Abstract: Oritavancin, a semisynthetic derivative of the glycopeptide antibiotic chloroeremomycin, received the US Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria in adults in August 2014. This novel second-generation semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide antibiotic has activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. Oritavancin inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis and is rapidly bactericidal against many Gram-positive pathogens. The long half-life of this drug enables a single-dose administration. Oritavancin is not metabolized in the body, and the unchanged drug is slowly excreted by the kidneys. In two large Phase III randomized, double-blind, clinical trials, oritavancin was found to be non-inferior to vancomycin in achieving the primary composite end point in the treatment of acute Gram-positive skin and skin structure infections. Adverse effects noted were mostly mild with nausea, headache, and vomiting being the most common reported side effects. Oritavancin has emerged as another useful antimicrobial agent for treatment of acute Gram-positive skin and skin structure infections, including those caused by MRSA and VISA.

Keywords: antibiotic, Gram-positive bacteria, MRSA, VRSA, vancomycin, MIC

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