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Profile of apalutamide in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: evidence to date

Authors Chong JT, Oh WK, Liaw BC

Received 11 January 2018

Accepted for publication 11 March 2018

Published 12 April 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 2141—2147


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Geoffrey Pietersz

Julio T Chong,1 William K Oh,2 Bobby C Liaw2

1Department of Urology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA

Abstract: Advances in therapies have led to the approval of six therapeutic agents since 2004, each demonstrating overall survival benefit in randomized studies, and these have significantly improved the outlook for men facing metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). More recently, efforts have been directed at trying to effect change at earlier phases of the disease. Apalutamide (ARN-509), a second-generation androgen receptor antagonist, recently received approval in the nonmetastatic (M0) CRPC space. Similar to enzalutamide, apalutamide inhibits the binding of androgen to androgen receptor (AR), nuclear translocation of the androgen–AR complex, and binding of AR transcription complex to DNA-binding sites and transcription elements. Phase I and II trial experience demonstrates the safety and tolerability of apalutamide, as well as its efficacy in effecting prostate-specific antigen response and radiographic-free survival in CRPC. US Food and Drug Administration approval in M0 CRPC was granted following positive results from the phase III SPARTAN study, where apalutamide demonstrated significant improvements in metastasis-free survival and time to symptomatic progression as compared to placebo.

Keywords: antiandrogens, castration-resistant prostatic cancer, investigational new drugs

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