Productivity loss and resource utilization, and associated indirect and direct costs in individuals providing care for adults with schizophrenia in the EU5
Authors Gupta S, Isherwood G, Jones K, Van Impe K
Received 13 August 2015
Accepted for publication 1 October 2015
Published 25 November 2015 Volume 2015:7 Pages 593—602
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Giorgio Lorenzo Colombo
Shaloo Gupta,1 Gina Isherwood,2 Kevin Jones,3 Kristel Van Impe4
1Kantar Health, Princeton, NJ, USA; 2Kantar Health, Epsom, Surrey, UK; 3European Federation of Associations of Families of People with Mental Illness, Diestsevest, Leuven, Belgium; 4Janssen-Cilag GmbH, Neuss, Germany
Objective: This study aimed to understand the impact of providing care for adults with schizophrenia on productivity, resource utilization, and costs in the EU5 (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and UK).
Methods: Data from the 2010, 2011, and 2013 EU5 National Health and Wellness Survey, an online questionnaire of a nationwide sample of adults, were analyzed. Schizophrenia caregivers (n=398) were matched to noncaregivers (n=158,989) and other caregivers (n=14,341) via propensity scores. Outcome measures included health care utilization, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire-based scores, and associated direct and indirect costs (estimated from the literature). Significant differences between schizophrenia caregivers vs noncaregivers and other caregivers (eg, cancer and Alzheimer's disease) were examined.
Results: After matching, schizophrenia caregivers reported greater activity impairment (38.4% vs 26.1%), provider visits (8.0 vs 5.7), emergency room visits (0.9 vs 0.2), hospitalizations (0.8 vs 0.1), and direct costs (€2,258 vs €617) than noncaregivers, all P<0.001. Employed schizophrenia caregivers reported greater absenteeism, presenteeism, overall work impairment (35.0% vs 20.7%), and indirect costs (€6,667 vs €3,795) than noncaregivers, all P<0.001. Schizophrenia caregivers (vs other caregivers) reported greater activity impairment (38.4% vs 32.3%) and provider visits (8.0 vs 6.6), P<0.05. A greater proportion of schizophrenia caregivers (vs other caregivers) reported at least one emergency room visit (26.1% vs 20.2%) and hospitalization (20.4% vs 14.3%), P<0.05. Employed schizophrenia caregivers incurred greater indirect costs than other caregivers (€6,667 vs €5,104).
Discussion: Schizophrenia caregivers reported greater activity impairment, resource utilization, and costs than noncaregivers and other caregivers. Better support systems for schizophrenia caregivers may help reduce the burden on the health care system and caregivers.
Keywords: schizophrenia, caregiver, direct cost, indirect cost, resource utilization, productivity loss, physician visits, burden, emergency room, hospitalization
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