Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency Among Iranian Pregnant Women
Received 12 May 2020
Accepted for publication 30 June 2020
Published 24 July 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 97—102
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Chandrika Piyathilake
Mojtaba Sepandi,1 Simindokht Esmailzadeh,2 Mahboobeh Sadat Hosseini,1 Seyedeh Razieh Hashemi,3 Sepideh Abbaszadeh,1 Yousef Alimohamadi,4,5 Maryam Taghdir1,2
1Health Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Faculty of Health, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Trauma Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Pars Advanced and Minimally Invasive Medical Manners Research Center, Pars Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Correspondence: Maryam Taghdir
Health Research Center, Life Style Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Background: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is a common concern. A high prevalence of VDD has been reported among pregnant women in different countries. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of VDD in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 267 pregnant women (before 14 weeks of gestation). The level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured. Demographic data (age, educational level, season of blood sampling, and vitamin D supplementation intake) were collected using a questionnaire.
Results: Based on the results of the study, 205 out of 267 subjects (76.8%) had deficient vitamin D levels (< 20 ng/mL), 39 (14.6%) had insufficient levels (20– 29 ng/mL), and 23 (8.6%) had sufficient levels (≥ 30 ng/mL). In addition, 133 women (49.8%) had severe VDD. VDD was more prevalent in autumn/winter than in spring/summer (P=0.03). The prevalence of VDD was higher among the younger age group than in the older group (P=0.04). In multivariate analysis, the only variable that was significantly associated with low vitamin D status was taking supplements. Those who were not receiving vitamin D supplements had higher odds of VDD status (adjusted odds ratio=77.3, 95% CI 23.9– 249.6).
Conclusion: VDD is a public health problem in the first trimester of pregnancy. Greater awareness among healthcare providers and the community is required for prevention and appropriate treatment.
Keywords: pregnancy, vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D insufficiency
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