Prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in long-term renal transplant patients
Vadamalai Vivek1, Sunil Bhandari1,2
1Department of Renal Medicine, Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust and Hull York Medical School, East Yorkshire, UK; 2Statewide Renal Services, Department of Renal Medicine, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, Sydney, Australia
Background: Cardiovascular disease accounts for the majority of morbidity and mortality in renal transplant patients. This relates to a number of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors, including new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). We examined the prevalence of these risk factors in a cohort of 126 renal transplant patients.
Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of 94 nondiabetic post-transplant (ND) patients (mean age 45.7 ± 13.5 years) and 32 NODAT patients (55.2 ± 9.6 years) was performed. Univariate linear regression analysis was used to identify potential factors that affected cardiovascular events. Multivariable analysis was performed on those factors found to achieve a P value of less than 0.20 after univariate analysis to test for significance in relation to cardiovascular risk as the primary factor.
Results: Mean serum creatinine levels were 131.1 ± 4.3 µmol/L and 135.2 ± 4.9 µmol/L at 96.9 ± 8.7 and 79.4 ± 14.1 months post-transplantation, respectively. Systolic pressure and pulse pressure were significantly higher in NODAT patients (P = 0.016 and P < 0.005). Adequate target blood pressures were obtained in 80% of patients. Low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were reduced in NODAT (P = 0.04 and P = 0.005). Homocysteine was similarly elevated in both groups (17.5 and 15.6 µmol/L, respectively). Coronary events and/or coronary disease were present in 19.1% of ND and 37.5% of NODAT patients (P < 0.05). Cardiac deaths were three-fold more common (25% versus 7.4%) in patients with NODAT. Univariate analysis revealed diabetes and age, and subsequent multivariable analysis revealed age only, as being significantly associated with cardiovascular outcomes.
Conclusions: Cardiac events are more common in patients with NODAT. Age is an important determinant of cardiovascular risk.
Keywords: blood pressure, cardiovascular risk, diabetes, post-transplant, renal, mortality
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