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Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Association with Grip Strength in Older Adults: Findings from the HOPE Study

Authors Merchant RA, Chan YH, Lim JY, Morley JE

Received 4 May 2020

Accepted for publication 7 July 2020

Published 27 July 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 2677—2686


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Juei-Tang Cheng

Reshma Aziz Merchant,1,2 Yiong Huak Chan,3 Jia Yi Lim,2 John E Morley4

1Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore; 2Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 3Biostatistics Unit, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 4Division of Geriatric Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA

Correspondence: Reshma Aziz Merchant
Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, National University Hospital 119228, Singapore
Tel +65 6779 5555

Objective: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in older adults and assess the association of MetS and adverse outcomes with handgrip strength (HGS), HGS/body weight (BWT), and HGS/body mass index (BMI).
Methods: A cross-sectional population study in Singapore. Data were collected on demographics, HGS, Timed-Up and Go (TUG), fasting glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, waist circumference, frailty status, and cognition in 722 older adults ≥ 65 years old. MetS was defined using the Modified ATP III for Asians where at least three of the following conditions must be fulfilled, central obesity, high blood glucose (or diagnosed diabetes mellitus), high blood pressure (or diagnosed hypertension), low high-density lipoprotein, and high triglycerides. The waist circumference in the Modified ATP III for Asians is ≥ 90 cm for males or ≥ 80 cm for females. HGS and HGS normalized by BWT or BMI were used for the association.
Results: The prevalence of MetS in older adults was 41.0%, and those ≥ 85 years old 50.0%. The prevalence was higher in females ≥ 70 years old, with 8 in 10 females ≥ 85 years having MetS. After adjusting for age, years of education, physical exercise, as well as history of smoking and alcohol consumption, higher HGS normalized by BWT or BMI was significantly associated with lower odds of having MetS (OR: 0.51,95% CI 0.43– 0.61, p< 0.01) and (OR: 0.13, 95% CI 0.07– 0.24, p< 0.01).
Conclusion: Almost 1 in 2 older adults had MetS, with the prevalence in females much higher than that in males over 70 years old. Our findings suggest that both HGS/BWT and HGS/BMI had a significant negative association with MetS, its components, and adverse effects. Further studies are needed to validate the association and to determine optimal cutoffs of HGS/BWT and HGS/BMI for MetS, and the effectiveness of interventions in averting the risk.

Keywords: handgrip strength, metabolic syndrome, prevalence, sarcopenia, older adults

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