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Prevalence of diabetes and obesity in association with prematurity and growth restriction

Authors Kopec G, Shekhawat PS, Mhanna MJ

Received 31 March 2017

Accepted for publication 13 June 2017

Published 6 July 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 285—295


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Ming-Hui Zou

Gretchen Kopec, Prem S Shekhawat, Maroun J Mhanna

Department of Pediatrics, MetroHealth Medical Centre, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA

Abstract: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is when fetuses and newborn infants have not reached their true growth potential as genetically defined. Fetuses with IUGR develop in a less than ideal environment that leads to epigenetic changes and marks infants’ metabolism for the rest of their lives. Epigenetic changes affect insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels and lead to insulin resistance and ultimately to a metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of illnesses that raise one’s risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and ischemic heart disease, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, central obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation. The association between IUGR or prematurity and long-term insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome remains unclear. While studies have shown an association, others have not supported such association. If alteration of intrauterine growth can ultimately lead to the development of metabolic derangements in childhood and adulthood, and if such association is true, then early interventions targeting the health of pregnant women will ensure the health of the population to follow.

Keywords: diabetes, obesity, low birth weight infants, metabolic syndrome

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