Back to Journals » International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease » Volume 9 » Issue 1

Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adult male cigarettes smokers: a community-based study in Jordan

Authors Al Omari M, Khassawneh B, Khader Y, Dauod AS, Bergus G

Received 23 February 2014

Accepted for publication 2 May 2014

Published 17 July 2014 Volume 2014:9(1) Pages 753—758


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 7

Mousa Al Omari,1 Basheer Y Khassawneh,2 Yousef Khader,1 Ali Shakir Dauod,1 George Bergus3

1Department of Community Medicine, Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3Department of Family Medicine, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA

Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalence of COPD among cigarette smokers in the Middle East is not well studied. A prospective descriptive study was performed in the north of Jordan. Male cigarette smokers (≥10 pack-year) aged 35 years and older were recruited from the community. They completed a questionnaire and a postbronchodilator spirometry. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria (postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second <70%) was used to define COPD. A total of 512 subjects completed the study protocol. According to the GOLD criteria, 42 subjects (8.2%) had COPD. Of those, 27 subjects (64.3%) had symptomatic COPD. Using the GOLD criteria, eight subjects (19%) with COPD had mild disease, 24 (57.1%) had moderate disease, eight (19%) had severe disease, and two (4.8%) had very severe disease. Only 10.6% were aware of COPD as a smoking-related respiratory illness, and 6.4% had received counseling about risk for COPD by a physician. Chronic bronchitis (cough for 3 months in 2 consecutive years) was reported by 15% of the subjects, wheezes by 44.1%, and dyspnea by 65.2%. Subjects with COPD reported having more chronic bronchitis 18/42 (42.9%) and wheezing 28/42 (66.7%) than subjects without COPD. The prevalence of COPD increased with increased number of pack-years smoked. In conclusion, COPD prevalence among cigarette-smoking men in Jordan is lower than in the developed world. COPD was largely underdiagnosed, despite the majority of participants being symptomatic and having moderate to severe disease.

Keywords: COPD, spirometry, GOLD, smoking, chronic bronchitis, Jordan

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]


Readers of this article also read:

Patient preferences in severe COPD and asthma: a comprehensive literature review

Bereza BG, Troelsgaard Nielsen A, Valgardsson S, Hemels MEH, Einarson TR

International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 2015, 10:739-744

Published Date: 8 April 2015

The effect of comorbidities on COPD assessment: a pilot study

Weinreich UM, Thomsen LP, Bielaska B, Jensen VH, Vuust M, Rees SE

International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 2015, 10:429-438

Published Date: 25 February 2015

Long-term efficacy of intensive cycle ergometer exercise training program for advanced COPD patients

Pothirat C, Chaiwong W, Phetsuk N, Liwsrisakun C, Bumroongkit C, Deesomchok A, Theerakittikul T, Limsukon A

International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 2015, 10:133-144

Published Date: 12 January 2015

Lobar analysis of collapsibility indices to assess functional lung volumes in COPD patients

Kitano M, Iwano S, Hashimoto N, Matsuo K, Hasegawa Y, Naganawa S

International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 2014, 9:1347-1356

Published Date: 9 December 2014

Central airways remodeling in COPD patients

Pini L, Pinelli V, Modina D, Bezzi M, Tiberio L, Tantucci C

International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 2014, 9:927-933

Published Date: 1 September 2014

Local sustained delivery of acetylsalicylic acid via hybrid stent with biodegradable nanofibers reduces adhesion of blood cells and promotes reendothelialization of the denuded artery

Lee CH, Lin YH, Chang SH, Tai CD, Liu SJ, Chu Y, Wang CJ, Hsu MY, Chang H, Chang GJ, Hung KC, Hsieh MJ, Lin FC, Hsieh IC, Wen MS, Huang Y

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:311-326

Published Date: 6 January 2014