Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adult male cigarettes smokers: a community-based study in Jordan
Mousa Al Omari,1 Basheer Y Khassawneh,2 Yousef Khader,1 Ali Shakir Dauod,1 George Bergus3
1Department of Community Medicine, Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3Department of Family Medicine, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalence of COPD among cigarette smokers in the Middle East is not well studied. A prospective descriptive study was performed in the north of Jordan. Male cigarette smokers (≥10 pack-year) aged 35 years and older were recruited from the community. They completed a questionnaire and a postbronchodilator spirometry. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria (postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second <70%) was used to define COPD. A total of 512 subjects completed the study protocol. According to the GOLD criteria, 42 subjects (8.2%) had COPD. Of those, 27 subjects (64.3%) had symptomatic COPD. Using the GOLD criteria, eight subjects (19%) with COPD had mild disease, 24 (57.1%) had moderate disease, eight (19%) had severe disease, and two (4.8%) had very severe disease. Only 10.6% were aware of COPD as a smoking-related respiratory illness, and 6.4% had received counseling about risk for COPD by a physician. Chronic bronchitis (cough for 3 months in 2 consecutive years) was reported by 15% of the subjects, wheezes by 44.1%, and dyspnea by 65.2%. Subjects with COPD reported having more chronic bronchitis 18/42 (42.9%) and wheezing 28/42 (66.7%) than subjects without COPD. The prevalence of COPD increased with increased number of pack-years smoked. In conclusion, COPD prevalence among cigarette-smoking men in Jordan is lower than in the developed world. COPD was largely underdiagnosed, despite the majority of participants being symptomatic and having moderate to severe disease.
Keywords: COPD, spirometry, GOLD, smoking, chronic bronchitis, Jordan
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