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Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria: systematic review of population-based studies

Authors Chukwuonye II, Ogah OS, Anyabolu EN, Ohagwu KA, Nwabuko OC, Onwuchekwa U, Chukwuonye ME, Obi EC, Oviasu E

Received 11 January 2018

Accepted for publication 13 March 2018

Published 22 May 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 165—172


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Pravin Singhal

Innocent Ijezie Chukwuonye,1 Okechukwu Samuel Ogah,2 Ernest Ndukaife Anyabolu,3 Kenneth Arinze Ohagwu,1 Ogbonna Collins Nwabuko,4 Uwa Onwuchekwa,5 Miracle Erinma Chukwuonye,6 Emmanuel Chukwuebuka Obi,1 Efosa Oviasu7

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Abia State, 2Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University College Hospital Ibadan, Oyo State 3Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital Awka, Anambra State, 4Department of Haematology, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, 5Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, 6Department of Family Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, 7Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria

Background: The aim of this study was to identify and discuss published population-based studies carried out in Nigeria that have information on the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and have also used the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) practice guidelines in defining CKD, with emphasis on the performance of three estimating equations for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) – Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), Cockcroft–Gault, and CKD epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) creatinine equation.
Materials and methods: A systematic literature search was carried out in Google, MEDLINE, PubMed, and AJOL database, with the aim of identifying relevant population-based studies with information on the prevalence of CKD in a location in Nigeria.
Results: Seven cross-sectional population-based studies were identified. Two of the studies used the Cockcroft–Gault and observed a prevalence of 24.4% and 26%. Four of the studies used the MDRD and the prevalences observed were 12.3%, 14.2%, 2.5%, and 13.4%. One of the studies used the CKD-EPI equation and the prevalence was 11.4%. The male to female ratios of CKD prevalence in six studies were 1:1.9, 0.8:1, 1:1.6, 1:2, 1:1.8, 1:1.4, and the observed risk factors in the studies were old age, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, family history of hypertension, family history of renal disease, low-income occupation, use of traditional medication, low hemoglobin, and abdominal obesity.
Conclusion: The prevalence of CKD was high but variable in Nigeria, influenced by the equation used to estimate the GFR. MDRD and CKD-EPI results are agreeable. There is a need for more population-based studies, with emphasis on repeating the GFR estimation after 3 months in subjects with GFR <60 mL/min/1.7 m2.

Keywords: CKD, Cockcroft–Gault, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, CKD epidemiology collaboration creatinine equation

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