Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome in obese Kuwaiti adolescents
Shurooq A Boodai,1 Lynne M Cherry,2 Naveed A Sattar,2 John J Reilly3
1University of Glasgow School of Medicine, Yorkhill Hospitals, Glasgow, Scotland; 2Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland; 3University of Strathclyde Physical Activity for Health Group, School of Psychological Sciences and Health, Glasgow, Scotland
Background: Childhood and adolescent obesity is associated with insulin resistance, abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation, liver disease, and compromised vascular function. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factor abnormalities and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a sample of obese Kuwaiti adolescents, as prevalence data might be helpful in improving engagement with obesity treatment in future.
Methods: Eighty obese Kuwaiti adolescents (40 males) with a mean (standard deviation) age of 12.3 years (1.1 years) participated in the present study. All participants had a detailed clinical examination and anthropometry, blood pressure taken, and assessment of fasting levels of C-reactive protein, intracellular adhesion molecule, interleukin-6, fasting blood glucose, insulin, liver function tests (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase), lipid profile (cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides), insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment, and adiponectin. MetS was assessed using two recognized criteria modified for use in younger individuals.
Results: The cardiometabolic risk factors with highest prevalence of abnormal values included aspartate aminotransferase (88.7% of the sample) and insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (67.5%), intracellular adhesion molecule (66.5%), fasting insulin (43.5%), C-reactive protein (42.5%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (35.0%), total cholesterol (33.5%), and systolic blood pressure (30.0%). Of all participants, 96.3% (77/80) had at least one impaired cardiometabolic risk factor as well as obesity. Prevalence of MetS was 21.3% according to the International Diabetes Federation definition and 30% using the Third Adult Treatment Panel definition.
Conclusion: The present study suggests that obese Kuwaiti adolescents have multiple cardiometabolic risk factor abnormalities. Future studies are needed to test the benefits of intervention in this high-risk group. They also suggest that prevention of obesity in children and adults should be a major public health goal in Kuwait.
Keywords: obesity, adolescents, prevalence, cardiometabolic risk factors, metabolic syndrome
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