Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Risk Factors Among Non-Pregnant Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Received 29 December 2020
Accepted for publication 12 February 2021
Published 5 March 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 765—777
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Nora AlFaris,1 Jozaa ALTamimi,1 Nora AlKehayez,1 Fatema AlMushawah,2 AbdulRhman AlNaeem,2 Nadia AlAmri,3 Ebtisam AlMudawah,3 Malak Alsemari,4 Jawaher Alzahrani,5 Layla Alqahtani II,6 Wedad Alenazi,2 Ashwaq Almuteb II,3 Hessa Alotibi3
1Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2King Fahd Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAAUH),Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 5Ministry of Health (Saudi Arabia), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Correspondence: Nora AlFaris; Jozaa ALTamimi
Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, P.O. Box 84428, Riyadh, 11671, Saudi Arabia
Email [email protected]; [email protected]
Background: Iron deficiency is known to be the most common nutritional disorder. About 30% of the world’s population is iron deficient (ID). Women are more likely to be exposed to anemia than men, which is an epidemic public health problem.
Objective: A cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of anemia and associated risk factors among non-pregnant women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Methods: Non-pregnant women (n = 250) aged 20– 65 years were involved in this study. Sociodemographic, nutritional status, menstrual history, anthropometric and haematological properties were calculated. Anaemia proxies including haemoglobin (HB), serum ferritin (IDA), Haematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were determined as well as BMI.
Results: The respondents were varied according to demographic factors and according to anemia proxies, the majority of them suffered from anemia. The Student’s t-test analysis showed that the average daily food intake was lower than that of the dietary requirement intake (DRI). Correlation and logistic regression analysis between sociodemographic factors and anemia proxies revealed that most of such factors significantly and negatively affected anemia proxies. Moreover, the correlation of daily food intake and anemia proxies showed that the nutrients responsible for the improvement of anemia proxies were not taken in sufficient amount as indicated by a significant and positive correlation.
Conclusion: In conclusion, various factors including demographic factors, daily food intake appeared to be associated with anemia proxies, which are the most important risk factor for anemia among non-pregnant women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Keywords: anemia, nutrient deficiency, dietary intake, hemoglobin, anthropometric
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