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Prevalence and Trends of Congenital Anomalies Among Neonates at Jimma Medical Center, Jimma, Ethiopia: A Three-Year Retrospective Study

Authors Silesh M, Lemma T, Fenta B, Biyazin T

Received 21 November 2020

Accepted for publication 9 February 2021

Published 17 February 2021 Volume 2021:12 Pages 61—67

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/PHMT.S293285

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Roosy Aulakh


Mulualem Silesh,1 Tesfanesh Lemma,1 Belete Fenta,2 Tsegaw Biyazin2

1Department of Midwifery, College of Health Science and Medicine, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia; 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, Institute of Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Mulualem Silesh
Department of Midwifery, College of Health Sciences, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia
Tel +251920249873
Email sileshmulualem22@gmail.com

Introduction: Congenital anomalies are a major public health problem which is defined as structural or functional anomalies that occur during intrauterine life which can be detected prenatally, at birth, or sometimes may only be detected later in infancy. The impact of congenital anomalies is severe in middle- and low-income countries than in other developed and developing countries.
Objective: To assess the prevalence and trends of congenital anomalies among neonates admitted at Jimma Medical Center from 2017 to 2019.
Methods: A facility-based retrospective, descriptive crossectional study was conducted among neonates admitted at Jimma Medical Center from 2017– 2019. Descriptive analysis (frequency and percentage) was calculated for the variables. The result was present in the table, text, and figure.
Results: From a total of 3346 admitted neonates, 199 (5.95%) neonates were diagnosed with congenital anomalies; of which 120 (60.3%), 146 (73.4%), 144 (72.4%) and 30 (15.1%) of neonates were males, urban dwellers, delivered with normal birth weight and had multiple congenital anomalies, respectively. Central nervous system was the most commonly affected body system 56 (28.1%), followed by the gastrointestinal tract 41 (20.1%) and musculoskeletal system 32 (16.1%). The proportion of congenital anomalies was significantly increasing over time.
Conclusion: The overall prevalence of congenital anomalies was high and increased from year to year. The proportions observed in the study indicated that a significant number of neonates were affected and suffered from the impacts of congenital anomalies which need immediate preventive actions such as iron folate supplementation during preconception and early pregnancy. Therefore, design strategies to create community awareness and prevention mechanism of congenital anomalies, and strengthening the care and rehabilitation services for affected patients are crucial.

Keywords: congenital anomalies, Jimma Medical Center, Ethiopia

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