Prevalence and factors predictive of intraocular fungal infection in patients with fungemia at an academic urban tertiary care center
Authors Geraymovych E, Conduff J, Braich P, Leffler CT, Brar V
Received 1 July 2015
Accepted for publication 11 August 2015
Published 29 September 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 1853—1858
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Elena Geraymovych,1 Joseph H Conduff,2 Puneet S Braich,3 Christopher T Leffler,3 Vikram S Brar3
1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, 2Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA
Objective: To report the prevalence and to identify factors predictive of intraocular infection in patients with fungemia receiving prophylactic antifungal therapy.
Methods: A retrospective review of patients who received prophylactic antifungal therapy and a dilated fundus examination at an academic urban tertiary care center from 2000 to 2007. Basic demographic information, fungal species grown, antifungal agent(s) used, number of positive blood culture specimens, visual acuity, visual symptoms, and known risks of disseminated candidiasis were noted. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors significantly associated with intraocular fungal infection.
Results: A total of 132 patients with positive fungemia culture were requested to have ophthalmology consults. The prevalence of ocular infection was 6.9% (N=9). All nine patients were infected with Candida species. Undergoing gastrointestinal (GI) surgery within the prior 6 months was significantly related to developing intraocular infection, with an odds ratio of 18.5 (95% confidence interval, 15.1–24.3; P=0.002). Having ≥3 positive fungal blood cultures was also a significant risk factor, with an odds ratio of 2.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.8–3.7; P=0.03). Among 40 patients having GI surgery, eight (20.0%) had intraocular fungal disease, compared with one of 92 patients (1.1%) not having GI surgery. Among 125 patients with a negative baseline examination result, two of 32 patients (6.3%), who had recent GI surgery, subsequently developed fungal ocular disease, compared with 0 of 93 patients (0%), who did not have recent GI surgery.
Conclusion: Recent GI surgery and higher numbers of positive fungal blood culture specimens may be predictive of candida ocular infections. Normal baseline fundoscopy examination results in patients with such risks may require repeat evaluations to detect delayed manifestations.
Keywords: fungal chorioretinitis, fungal endophthalmitis, risks factors for intraocular fungal infection, risks of gasterointestinal surgery
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