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Preparation of coffee oil-algae oil-based nanoemulsions and the study of their inhibition effect on UVA-induced skin damage in mice and melanoma cell growth

Authors Yang CC, Hung CF, Chen BH

Received 23 June 2017

Accepted for publication 2 August 2017

Published 5 September 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 6559—6580

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S144705

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Dongwoo Khang


Chu-Ching Yang,1,* Chi-Feng Hung,2,* Bing-Huei Chen1

1Department of Food Science, 2School of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: Coffee grounds, a waste by-product generated after making coffee, contains approximately 15% coffee oil which can be used as a raw material in cosmetics. Algae oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been demonstrated to possess anticancer and anti-inflammation functions. The objectives of this study were to develop a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the determination of fatty acids in coffee oil and algae oil and prepare a nanoemulsion for studying its inhibition effect on ultraviolet A-induced skin damage in mice and growth of melanoma cells B16-F10. A total of 8 and 5 fatty acids were separated and quantified in coffee oil and algae oil by GC-MS, respectively, with linoleic acid (39.8%) dominating in the former and DHA (33.9%) in the latter. A nanoemulsion with a particle size of 30 nm, zeta potential -72.72 mV, and DHA encapsulation efficiency 100% was prepared by using coffee oil, algae oil, surfactant (20% Span 80 and 80% Tween 80), and deionized water. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed a high stability of nanoemulsion when heated up to 110°C at a pH 6, whereas no significant changes in particle size distribution and pH occurred over a 90-day storage period at 4°C. Animal experiments showed that a dose of 0.1% coffee oil-algae oil nanoemulsion was effective in mitigating trans-epidermal water loss, skin erythema, melanin formation, and subcutaneous blood flow. Cytotoxicity test implied effective inhibition of melanoma cell growth by nanoemulsion with an IC50 value of 26.5 µg/mL and the cell cycle arrested at G2/M phase. A dose-dependent upregulation of p53, p21, cyclin B, and cyclin A expressions and downregulation of CDK1 and CDK2 occurred. Also, both Bax and cytochrome c expressions were upregulated and bcl-2 expression downregulated, accompanied by a rise in caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 activities for apoptosis execution. Collectively, the apoptosis pathway of melanoma cells B16-F10 may involve both mitochondria and death receptor.

Keywords: coffee ground, coffee oil-algae oil nanoemulsion, DHA, melanoma cell apoptosis, mouse skin protection, GC-MS

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