Preparation, Characterization, Pharmacokinetic, and Therapeutic Potential of Novel 6-Mercaptopurine-Loaded Oral Nanomedicines for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Received 10 November 2020
Accepted for publication 7 January 2021
Published 12 February 2021 Volume 2021:16 Pages 1127—1141
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 4
Editor who approved publication: Dr Ebrahim Mostafavi
Yaru Zou,1,2,* Dong Mei,1,* Jinjie Yuan,1,2 Jiaqi Han,1 Jiamin Xu,1 Ning Sun,1 Huan He,1 Changqing Yang,2 Libo Zhao1
1Clinical Research Center, Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children’s Health, Beijing, 100045, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Basic Medicine and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 211198, People’s Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Correspondence: Libo Zhao
Clinical Research Center, Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children’s Health, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common hematologic malignancy in children. It requires a long and rigorous course of chemotherapy treatments. 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) is one of the primary drugs used in chemotherapy. Unfortunately, its efficacy has been limited due to its insolubility, poor bioavailability and serious adverse effects. To overcome these drawbacks, we constructed 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP)-loaded nanomedicines (6-MPNs) with biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) to enhance the anticancer efficacy of 6-MP.
Methods: We prepared the 6-MPNs using a double-emulsion solvent evaporation method, characterizing them for the physicochemical properties. We then investigated the plasma, intestinal region and other organs in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats for pharmacokinetics. Additionally, we evaluated its anticancer efficacy in vitro on the human T leukemia cell line Jurkat and in vivo on the ALL model mice.
Results: The 6-MPNs were spherical in shape with uniform particle size and high encapsulation efficiency. The in vitro release profile showed that 6-MPNs exhibited a burst release that a sustained release phase then followed. The apoptosis assay demonstrated that 6-MPNs could improve the in vitro cytotoxicity in Jurkat cells. Pharmacokinetics profiles revealed that 6-MPNs had improved oral bioavailability. Tissue distribution experiments indicated that 6-MPNs increased the duodenum absorption of 6-MP, at the same time having a low accumulation of the toxic metabolites of 6-MP. The in vivo pharmacodynamics study revealed that 6-MPNs could prolong the survival time of the ALL model mice. The prepared 6-MPNs, therefore, have superior properties in terms of anticancer efficacy against ALL with reduced systemic toxicity.
Conclusion: Our nanomedicines provide a promising delivery strategy for 6-MP; they offer a simple preparation method and high significance for clinical translation.
Keywords: 6-mercaptopurine, nanomedicines, Jurkat cells, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, ALL, bioavailability
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