Predictors of obstructive sleep apnea in males with metabolic syndrome
Nikolaos Papanas1, Paschalis Steiropoulos2, Evangelia Nena2, Argyris Tzouvelekis2, Athanasios Skarlatos2, Maria Konsta2, Vasileios Vasdekis3, Efstratios Maltezos1, Demosthenes Bouros2
1Outpatient Clinic of Obesity, Diabetes and Metabolism, Second Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 2Sleep Laboratory, Department of Pneumonology, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 3Department of Statistics, Athens University of Economic and Business, Athens, Greece
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components among obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients vs controls, as well as to investigate which of these components are strongly associated with the presence of OSA in subjects reporting symptoms indicating sleep-disordered breathing. Included were 83 consecutive male subjects, without known concomitant diseases, who visited an outpatient clinic of obesity, diabetes and metabolism. Based on polysomnography, these were divided into two groups: OSA patients (n = 53) and controls (n = 30). Parameters indicating MS, according to the NCEP ATP III criteria (blood pressure, waist circumference, glucose, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol levels) were evaluated in both groups. The criteria for MS were fulfilled in 49 participants. Presence of MS was significantly correlated with the presence of OSA. However, after adjustment for BMI, only serum glucose was significantly associated with the presence of OSA (P = 0.002). Conversely, the presence of MS was associated with a significant reduction in percentage of slow-wave sleep (P = 0.030). In conclusion, these results provide further evidence for the association between OSA and MS. Between subjects with MS, elevated serum glucose levels indicate a higher probability for the presence of OSA.
Keywords: diabetes mellitus, glucose, metabolic syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea
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