Predictors of cervical cancer being at an advanced stage at diagnosis in Sudan
Ahmed Ibrahim1, Vibeke Rasch2, Eero Pukkala3, Arja R Aro1
1Unit for Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 3Finnish Cancer Registry, Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Helsinki, Finland
Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Sudan, with more than two-thirds of all women with invasive cervical cancer being diagnosed at an advanced stage (stages III and IV). The lack of a screening program for cervical cancer in Sudan may contribute to the late presentation of this cancer, but other factors potentially associated with advanced stages of cervical cancer at diagnosis are unknown. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between age, marital status, ethnicity, health insurance coverage, residence in an urban vs a rural setting, and stage (at diagnosis) of cervical cancer in Sudan.
Methods: This was a cross sectional study of 197 women diagnosed with different stages of cervical cancer. Data was obtained from the cancer registry unit at the Radiation and Isotopes Centre in Khartoum for all women diagnosed with cervical cancer in 2007.
Results: There was an association between older age and advanced stage (at diagnosis) of cervical cancer (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.05). Being of African ethnicity was associated with 76% increased odds (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.01–3.05), living in a rural area was associated with 13% increased odds (OR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.78–5.50), and being uninsured was associated with an almost eight-fold increase in odds (OR: 7.7, 95% CI: 3.76–15.38). Marital status and education level were not associated with an advanced stage of cervical cancer at diagnosis.
Conclusion: Women with cervical cancer who are elderly, not covered by health insurance, of African ethnicity, and living in a rural area are more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage of cervical cancer in Sudan. These women should be targeted for cervical cancer screening and a health education program, and encouraged to have health insurance.
Keywords: predictors, cervical cancer, diagnosis, advanced, health insurance, Sudan
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