Predictors and consequences of adherence to the treatment of pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Central Europe and East Asia
Authors Hong J, Novick D, Treuer T, Montgomery W, Haynes VS, Wu S, Haro JM
Received 27 June 2013
Accepted for publication 21 August 2013
Published 30 September 2013 Volume 2013:7 Pages 987—995
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 4
Jihyung Hong,1 Diego Novick,1 Tamás Treuer,2 William Montgomery,3 Virginia S Haynes,4 Shenghu Wu,5 Josep Maria Haro6
1Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Neuroscience Research, Budapest, Hungary; 3Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, US; 5Eli Lilly China, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 6Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Purpose: To assess baseline predictors and consequences of medication non-adherence in the treatment of pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from Central Europe and East Asia.
Patients and methods: Data for this post-hoc analysis were taken from a 1-year prospective, observational study that included a total of 1,068 newly-diagnosed pediatric patients with ADHD symptoms from Central Europe and East Asia. Medication adherence during the week prior to each visit was assessed by treating physicians using a 5-point Likert scale, and then dichotomized into either adherent or non-adherent. Clinical severity was measured by the Clinical Global Impressions-ADHD-Severity (CGI-ADHD) scale and the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4) Checklist. Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) was measured using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition (CHIP-CE). Regression analyses were used to assess baseline predictors of overall adherence during follow-up, and the impact of time-varying adherence on subsequent outcomes: response (defined as a decrease of at least 1 point in CGI), changes in CGI-ADHD, CSI-4, and the five dimensions of CHIP-CE.
Results: Of the 860 patients analyzed, 64.5% (71.6% in Central Europe and 55.5% in East Asia) were rated as adherent and 35.5% as non-adherent during follow-up. Being from East Asia was found to be a strong predictor of non-adherence. In East Asia, a family history of ADHD and parental emotional distress were associated with non-adherence, while having no other children living at home was associated with non-adherence in Central Europe as well as in the overall sample. Non-adherence was associated with poorer response and less improvement on CGI-ADHD and CSI-4, but not on CHIP-CE.
Conclusion: Non-adherence to medication is common in the treatment of ADHD, particularly in East Asia. Non-adherence was associated with poorer response and less improvement in clinical severity. A limitation of this study is that medication adherence was assessed by the treating clinician using a single item question.
Keywords: ADHD, non-adherence, response, effectiveness, Asia, Central Europe
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