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Pre-pregnancy high-risk factors at first antenatal visit: how predictive are these of pregnancy outcomes?

Authors Tandu-Umba B, Mbangama M, Kamongola K, Tchawou AG, Kivuidi M, Munene S, Meke I, Kabasele O, Kondoli B, Kikuni K, Kuzungu S

Received 11 June 2014

Accepted for publication 4 August 2014

Published 5 December 2014 Volume 2014:6 Pages 1011—1018

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S69230

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Elie Al-Chaer


Barthélémy Tandu-Umba, Muela Andy Mbangama, Kitenge Marc Brunel Kamongola , Tchawou Armel Georges Kamgang, Mawamfumu Perthus Kivuidi, Munene Sam Kasonga, Meke Irène Kambashi, Kabasele Oscar Kapuku, Bituemi Jackson Kondoli, Kibundila Rolly Kikuni, Kuzungu Simon Kasikila

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Clinics of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

Objective:
To determine relationships between pre-pregnancy risk factors at first antenatal visit booking and pregnancy outcomes.
Study design: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study involving women admitted for singleton delivery from July 1 until October 31 (3 months), 2013, at nine major maternity clinics in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. All women were checked for hereditary, community, and personal medical/surgical risk situations and mother/infant problems in previous pregnancies. Maternal and perinatal complications related to current/just-terminated pregnancy were analyzed according to pre-pregnancy risk factors in order to establish their prediction concerning maternal and perinatal complications related to current/just-terminated pregnancy (odds ratios). Results are given with 95% confidence intervals, and P<0.05 was considered significant.
Results: The study sample comprised 2,086 women. Primiparity (36.5%), single relationship status (26.4%), and maternal age ≥35 years (18.3%) were the most important non-pathologic risk factors, while arterial hypertension in family (34.3%), previous miscarriage (33.2%), overweight/obesity (21.9%), diabetes in family (21.1%), previous cesarean section (15.7%), previous postpartum hemorrhage (13.1%), low birth weight (10%), previous macrosomia (10%), and previous premature rupture of membranes (6.2%) predominated among pathologic risk factors. Major adverse outcomes recurred in some women, with recurrence rates of 21/37 (57%), 111/208 (53%), 74/208 (36%), 191/598 (32%), 132/466 (28%), 24/130 (18%), and 4/65 (6%) for prematurity, low birth weight, macrosomia, preeclampsia/eclampsia, cesarean section, premature rupture of membranes, and stillbirth, respectively. Outcomes that were significantly influenced by non-pathologic risk factors were also significantly influenced by pathologic risk factors.
Conclusion: Pregnancy adverse outcomes are strongly influenced by either non-pathologic or pathologic pre-pregnancy risk factors at first antenatal visit booking. The recurrence potential of complications is one reason to establish the predictability and preventability of morbidity such that the most appropriate referrals and best options throughout the pregnancy can be determined.

Keywords: pre-pregnancy risk factors, recurrence, maternal/perinatal outcomes, developing countries

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