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Practice patterns for lower respiratory tract infections in hospital patients with particular focus on bacteriological examinations and injection antibiotics use

Authors Wada M, Nakayama T, Ishizaki T, Satoh T, Ikeda S

Received 19 February 2013

Accepted for publication 18 April 2013

Published 18 July 2013 Volume 2013:6 Pages 597—604

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S44190

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3


Mikio Wada,1 Takeo Nakayama,2 Tatsuro Ishizaki,3 Toshihiko Satoh,4 Shunya Ikeda5

1General Internal Medicine, Fukuchiyama City Hospital, Fukuchiyama, Kyoto, Japan; 2Department of Health Informatics, Kyoto University School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan; 3Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan; 4School of Social Informatics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan; 5Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, International University of Health and Welfare, Ohtawara, Tochigi, Japan


Background: Various types of medical institutions perform treatments for lower respiratory tract infections. However, few studies have assessed and compared practice patterns across different medical institutions in Japan. To assess practice patterns for community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections among patients who needed hospitalization, we examined the use of injection antibiotics and the implementation of bacteriological examinations, and compared these across medical institutions. We then evaluated whether bacteriological examinations were being adequately implemented.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a database of health insurance claims. Subjects were patients ≥16 years old) who received injection antibiotics to treat lower respiratory tract infections, and who were listed among 2004–2007 insurance claims data. For each type of antibiotic, we obtained the dose prescribed, the number of patients treated, and the frequency of bacteriological examinations.
Results: A total of 1649 patients were evaluated. The implementation rate of Gram stain and sputum culture was 14% at clinics (<20 beds), approximately 30% at small hospitals (20–99 beds), and 40%–45% at medium-sized (100–499 beds) and large hospitals (≥500 beds). As a whole, beta-lactams were most frequently used, accounting for 80% of all antibiotics used. Among beta-lactams, penicillins comprised 25% of the total amount of drugs used at hospitals with ≥300 beds, but approximately 13% at clinics and small hospitals.
Conclusion: Practice patterns varied depending on the size of the medical institution. The implementation rate of bacteriological examinations was not high enough, especially at clinics and small hospitals.

Keywords: treatment pattern, medical institution size, variability, health insurance claims

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