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Potential role of phytochemicals in metabolic syndrome prevention and therapy

Authors Francini-Pesenti F, Spinella P, Calò LA

Received 5 May 2019

Accepted for publication 9 July 2019

Published 1 October 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 1987—2002

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S214550

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Melinda Thomas

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Konstantinos Tziomalos


Francesco Francini-Pesenti,1 Paolo Spinella,1 Lorenzo A Calò2

1Department of Medicine (DIMED), Nutrition Unit, University of Padova-Azienda Ospedaliera, Padova, Italy; 2Department of Medicine (DIMED), Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Unit, University of Padova-Azienda Ospedaliera, Padova, Italy

Correspondence: Lorenzo A Cal&#x00F2
Department of Medicine, Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Unit, University of Padova-Azienda Ospedaliera, Via Giustiniani 2, Padova 35128, Italy
Tel +39 049 821 3071
Fax +39 049 821 7921
Email renzcalo@unipd.it

Abstract: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a set of cardiovascular risk factors which severely increases the risk of type II diabetes, renal disease and cardiovascular disease. Over the last decades, the role of dietary bioactive substances in features of MetS has been extensively investigated. Due to their multiple properties, these plant-derived natural compounds have demonstrated to provide positive effects in obesity, diabetes, renal and in cardiovascular disease. Catechins of green tea and caffeine reduce body mass index and waist circumference. Catechins, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins of cocoa reduce blood pressure and blood glucose. Curcumin and silymarin exert hepatoprotective effects. Monacolins of red yeast rice are effective cholesterol-lowering agents. However, inconsistent or conflicting results have been found in clinical trials when other promising compounds in vitro or in animal studies, such as policosanol, curcumin or silymarin, were used. Low oral bioavailability of substances, ineffective dosages, inadequate treatment duration and insufficient statistical approach may explain the lack of effectiveness observed in some human studies. Further clinical studies are needed to better understand the role of bioactive compounds in the prevention and management of MetS.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, bioactive substances, nutrition, cardiovascular risk

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