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Potential of Methylglyoxal-Conjugated Chitosan Nanoparticles in Treatment of Fluconazole-Resistant Candida albicans Infection in a Murine Model

Authors Khan SH, Younus H, Allemailem KS, Almatroudi A, Alrumaihi F, Alruwetei AM, Alsahli MA, Khan A, Khan MA

Received 13 February 2020

Accepted for publication 4 May 2020

Published 26 May 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 3681—3693

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S249625

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Webster


Shaheer Hasan Khan,1,* Hina Younus,1,* Khaled S Allemailem,2 Ahmad Almatroudi,2 Faris Alrumaihi,2 Abdulmohsen M Alruwetei,2 Mohammed A Alsahli,2 Arif Khan,3 Masood Alam Khan3

1Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India; 2Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraidah 51452, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Basic Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraidah, 51452, Saudi Arabia

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence: Masood Alam Khan
Department of Basic Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah, KSA 51452 Tel +966-507059437
Fax +966-63801628
Email a_khan@qu.edu.sa

Background: Fungal infections are becoming more prevalent and threatening because of the continuous emergence of azole-resistant fungal infections. The present study was aimed to assess the activity of free Methylglyoxal (MG) or MG-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles (MGCN) against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans.
Materials and Methods: A novel formulation of MGCN was prepared and characterized to determine their size, shape and polydispersity index. Moreover, the efficacy of fluconazole or MG or MGCN was determined against intracellular C. albicans in macrophages and the systematic candidiasis in a murine model. The safety of MG or MGCN was tested in mice by analyzing the levels of hepatic and renal toxicity parameters.
Results: Candida albicans did not respond to fluconazole, even at the highest dose of 20 mg/kg, whereas MG and MGCN effectively eliminated C. albicans from the macrophages and infected mice. Mice in the group treated with MGCN at a dose of 10 mg/kg exhibited a 90% survival rate and showed the lowest fungal load in the kidney, whereas the mice treated with free MG at the same dose exhibited 50% survival rate. Moreover, the administration of MG or MGCN did not induce any liver and kidney toxicity in the treated mice.
Conclusion: The findings of the present work suggest that MGCN may be proved a promising therapeutic formulation to treat azole-resistant C. albicans infections.

Keywords: chitosan nanoparticles, fluconazole-resistant, systemic Candidiasis, methylglyoxal

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