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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a woman with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

Authors Chowdhary M, Kabbani A, Tobey D, Hope T

Received 5 March 2015

Accepted for publication 25 March 2015

Published 21 April 2015 Volume 2015:11 Pages 1111—1114


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder

Mudit Chowdhary,1 Ahmad A Kabbani,1 Devon Tobey,1 Thomas D Hope2

1Department of Internal Medicine, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon, GA, USA; 2Department of Neurology, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon, GA, USA

Abstract: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare syndrome characterized by reversible vasogenic edema in the posterior hemispheres. PRES is most often attributed to primary hypertension, pre-eclampsia, and neurotoxicity secondary to immunosuppressants such as cyclosporine. Renal disease is an infrequent cause of PRES with a majority of cases occurring in adults with complete renal failure or in pediatric cases with underlying renal parenchymal disease and concurrent immunosuppressive therapy. Typical symptoms include seizure, headache, altered mental status, and visual disturbances. PRES is rarely associated with cerebral hemorrhage, and even less so with subarachnoid bleeds. Herein we report on a 25-year-old female with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis who developed PRES. The patient’s presentation was more severe as she presented with seizure, nephrotic syndrome, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with concurrent symptoms led us to the final diagnosis. The patient was treated with antihypertensives, diuretics, and corticosteroids and follow-up imaging revealed resolution of PRES. Our case illustrates that underlying kidney disease even without immunosuppressive agents should be added to the list of possible causes for PRES. Symptoms are reversible with treatment of underlying cause or offending agent.

Keywords: PRES, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage

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