Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles conjugated with CD133 aptamers for targeted salinomycin delivery to CD133+ osteosarcoma cancer stem cells
Authors Ni M, Xiong M, Zhang X, Cai G, Chen H, Zeng Q, Yu Z
Received 2 December 2014
Accepted for publication 18 February 2015
Published 31 March 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 2537—2554
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 5
Editor who approved publication: Dr Lei Yang
Miaozhong Ni,1,* Min Xiong,1,* Xinchao Zhang,1,* Guoping Cai,1 Huaiwen Chen,2 Qingmin Zeng,1 Zuochong Yu1
1Department of Orthopedics, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, 2International Joint Cancer Institute, the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Background: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) possess the characteristics associated with normal stem cells and are responsible for cancer initiation, recurrence, and metastasis. CD133 is regarded as a CSCs marker of osteosarcoma, which is the most common primary bone malignancy in childhood and adolescence. Salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic, has been shown to kill various CSCs, including osteosarcoma CSCs. However, salinomycin displayed poor aqueous solubility that hinders its clinical application. The objective of this study was to develop salinomycin-loaded nanoparticles to eliminate CD133+ osteosarcoma CSCs.
Methods: The salinomycin-loaded PEGylated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (SAL-NP) conjugated with CD133 aptamers (Ap-SAL-NP) were developed by an emulsion/solvent evaporation method, and the targeting and cytotoxicity of Ap-SAL-NP to CD133+ osteosarcoma CSCs were evaluated.
Results: The nanoparticles are of desired particle size (~150 nm), drug encapsulation efficiency (~50%), and drug release profile. After 48 hours treatment of the Saos-2 CD133+ osteosarcoma cells with drugs formulated in Ap-SAL-NP, SAL-NP, and salinomycin, the concentrations needed to kill 50% of the incubated cells were found to be 2.18, 10.72, and 5.07 µg/mL, respectively, suggesting that Ap-SAL-NP could be 4.92 or 2.33 fold more effective than SAL-NP or salinomycin, respectively. In contrast, Ap-SAL-NP was as effective as SAL-NP, and less effective than salinomycin in Saos-2 CD133- cells, suggesting that Ap-SAL-NP possess specific cytotoxicity toward Saos-2 CD133+ cells. Ap-SAL-NP showed the best therapeutic effect in Saos-2 osteosarcoma xenograft mice, compared with SAL-NP or salinomycin. Significantly, Ap-SAL-NP could selectively kill CD133+ osteosarcoma CSCs both in vitro and in vivo, as reflected by the tumorsphere formation and proportion of Saos-2 CD133+ cells.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that CD133 is a potential target for drug delivery to osteosarcoma CSCs and that it is possible to significantly inhibit the osteosarcoma growth by killing CD133+ osteosarcoma CSCs. We demonstrated that Ap-SAL-NP have the potential to target and kill CD133+ osteosarcoma CSCs.
Keywords: targeted therapy, ligand-conjugated nanomedicines, cancer initiating cells
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