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Pisa syndrome in Parkinson's disease: diagnostic and management challenges

Authors Miletic V

Received 7 February 2016

Accepted for publication 27 February 2016

Published 19 April 2016 Volume 2016:6 Pages 29—35


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Peter Hedera

Vladimir Miletić

Department of Neurology, Movement Disorders Centre, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia

Abstract: Pisa syndrome is a rare clinical entity characterized by marked lateral flexion of the trunk, which is typically mobile and resolves at supine position. When observed in clinical practice, it denotes an incapacitating symptom of underlying neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the development of Pisa syndrome are poorly understood, and its management remains a challenge. In this review, we will focus our attention on Pisa syndrome in patients with Parkinson's disease, and provide an update on prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical manifestation, and treatment options.

Keywords: Pisa syndrome, lateral trunk flexion, Parkinson's disease

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