Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 12

Pinhole X-ray fluorescence imaging of gadolinium and gold nanoparticles using polychromatic X-rays: a Monte Carlo study

Authors Jung S, Sung W, Ye SJ

Received 5 May 2017

Accepted for publication 1 July 2017

Published 11 August 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 5805—5817


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster

Seongmoon Jung,1,2 Wonmo Sung,1,2 Sung-Joon Ye1–3

1Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Biomedical Research Institute, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon, Republic of Korea

Abstract: This work aims to develop a Monte Carlo (MC) model for pinhole K-shell X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging of metal nanoparticles using polychromatic X-rays. The MC model consisted of two-dimensional (2D) position-sensitive detectors and fan-beam X-rays used to stimulate the emission of XRF photons from gadolinium (Gd) or gold (Au) nanoparticles. Four cylindrical columns containing different concentrations of nanoparticles ranging from 0.01% to 0.09% by weight (wt%) were placed in a 5 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom. The images of the columns had detectable contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of 5.7 and 4.3 for 0.01 wt% Gd and for 0.03 wt% Au, respectively. Higher concentrations of nanoparticles yielded higher CNR. For 1×1011 incident particles, the radiation dose to the phantom was 19.9 mGy for 110 kVp X-rays (Gd imaging) and 26.1 mGy for 140 kVp X-rays (Au imaging). The MC model of a pinhole XRF can acquire direct 2D slice images of the object without image reconstruction. The MC model demonstrated that the pinhole XRF imaging system could be a potential bioimaging modality for nanomedicine.

Keywords: X-ray fluorescence, pinhole, nanoparticles, bioimaging, CNR, radiation dose

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]