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Pinhole X-ray fluorescence imaging of gadolinium and gold nanoparticles using polychromatic X-rays: a Monte Carlo study

Authors Jung S, Sung W, Ye SJ

Received 5 May 2017

Accepted for publication 1 July 2017

Published 11 August 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 5805—5817

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S141185

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster


Seongmoon Jung,1,2 Wonmo Sung,1,2 Sung-Joon Ye1–3

1Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Biomedical Research Institute, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon, Republic of Korea

Abstract: This work aims to develop a Monte Carlo (MC) model for pinhole K-shell X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging of metal nanoparticles using polychromatic X-rays. The MC model consisted of two-dimensional (2D) position-sensitive detectors and fan-beam X-rays used to stimulate the emission of XRF photons from gadolinium (Gd) or gold (Au) nanoparticles. Four cylindrical columns containing different concentrations of nanoparticles ranging from 0.01% to 0.09% by weight (wt%) were placed in a 5 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom. The images of the columns had detectable contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of 5.7 and 4.3 for 0.01 wt% Gd and for 0.03 wt% Au, respectively. Higher concentrations of nanoparticles yielded higher CNR. For 1×1011 incident particles, the radiation dose to the phantom was 19.9 mGy for 110 kVp X-rays (Gd imaging) and 26.1 mGy for 140 kVp X-rays (Au imaging). The MC model of a pinhole XRF can acquire direct 2D slice images of the object without image reconstruction. The MC model demonstrated that the pinhole XRF imaging system could be a potential bioimaging modality for nanomedicine.

Keywords: X-ray fluorescence, pinhole, nanoparticles, bioimaging, CNR, radiation dose
 

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