Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 9 » Issue 1

Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles

Authors Bennet D, Kang SC, Gang J, Kim S

Received 5 September 2013

Accepted for publication 12 October 2013

Published 18 December 2013 Volume 2014:9(1) Pages 93—108


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Devasier Bennet,1 Se Chan Kang,2 Jongback Gang,3 Sanghyo Kim1,4

1Department of Bionanotechnology, 2Department of Life Science, 3Department of Nano Chemistry, Gachon University, Bokjeong-Dong, Sujeong-Gu, Seongnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea; 4Graduate Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Medical Center, Inchon, Republic of Korea

Abstract: Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 µM nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics.

Keywords: apple peel ethanolic extract, antioxidant, cellular uptake, electric cell-substrate impedance sensing, phyto-drugs, light-induced damage

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]


Other articles by this author:

Dual drug-loaded nanoparticles on self-integrated scaffold for controlled delivery

Bennet D, Marimuthu M, Kim S, An J

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:3399-3419

Published Date: 16 July 2012

Real-time electrical measurement of L929 cellular spontaneous and synchronous oscillation

Marimuthu M, Park C, Kim S, Choi CS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:83-93

Published Date: 6 January 2012

Readers of this article also read:

Molecular targets in arthritis and recent trends in nanotherapy

Roy K, Kanwar RK, Kanwar JR

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2015, 10:5407-5420

Published Date: 26 August 2015

Comparative efficacy and safety of local and systemic methotrexate injection in cesarean scar pregnancy

Peng P, Gui T, Liu X, Chen W, Liu Z

Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 2015, 11:137-142

Published Date: 27 January 2015

Is increasing the dose of Entecavir effective in partial virological responders?

Erturk A, Adnan Akdogan R, Parlak E, Cure E, Cumhur Cure M, Ozturk C

Drug Design, Development and Therapy 2014, 8:621-625

Published Date: 29 May 2014

Vincristine sulfate liposomal injection for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Soosay Raj TA, Smith AM, Moore AS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2013, 8:4361-4369

Published Date: 6 November 2013

Photodynamic therapy of a 2-methoxyestradiol tumor-targeting drug delivery system mediated by Asn-Gly-Arg in breast cancer

Shi J, Wang Z, Wang L, Wang H, Li L, Yu X, Zhang J, Ma R, Zhang Z

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2013, 8:1551-1562

Published Date: 19 April 2013

Controlled-release approaches towards the chemotherapy of tuberculosis

Saifullah B, Hussein MZ, Hussein Al Ali SH

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5451-5463

Published Date: 12 October 2012