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Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles

Authors Bennet D, Kang SC, Gang J, Kim S

Received 5 September 2013

Accepted for publication 12 October 2013

Published 18 December 2013 Volume 2014:9(1) Pages 93—108

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S54048

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Devasier Bennet,1 Se Chan Kang,2 Jongback Gang,3 Sanghyo Kim1,4

1Department of Bionanotechnology, 2Department of Life Science, 3Department of Nano Chemistry, Gachon University, Bokjeong-Dong, Sujeong-Gu, Seongnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea; 4Graduate Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Medical Center, Inchon, Republic of Korea

Abstract: Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 µM nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics.

Keywords: apple peel ethanolic extract, antioxidant, cellular uptake, electric cell-substrate impedance sensing, phyto-drugs, light-induced damage


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