Back to Journals » Infection and Drug Resistance » Volume 13

Phenotypic and Genotypic Assessment of Antibiotic Resistance and Genotyping of vacA, cagA, iceA, oipA, cagE, and babA2 Alleles of Helicobacter pylori Bacteria Isolated from Raw Meat

Authors Mashak Z, Jafariaskari S, Alavi I, Sakhaei Shahreza M, Safarpoor Dehkordi F

Received 6 October 2019

Accepted for publication 17 December 2019

Published 29 January 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 257—272


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony

Zohreh Mashak, 1 Sedigheh Jafariaskari, 2 Iman Alavi, 3 Mohammadhossein Sakhaei Shahreza, 4 Farhad Safarpoor Dehkordi 5

1Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran; 2Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran; 4Doctor Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran; 5Halal Research Center of IRI, FDA, Tehran, Iran

Correspondence: Mohammadhossein Sakhaei Shahreza
Doctor Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran
Tel +989133223632

Background: Foodstuffs with animal origins, particularly meat, are likely reservoirs of Helicobacter pylori.
Purpose: An existing survey was accompanied to assess phenotypic and genotypic profiles of antibiotic resistance and genotyping of vacA, cagA, cagE, iceA, oipA, and babA2 alleles amongst the H. pylori bacteria recovered from raw meat.
Methods: Six-hundred raw meat samples were collected and cultured. H. pylori isolates were tested using disk diffusion and PCR identification of antibiotic resistance genes and genotyping.
Results: Fifty-two out of 600 (8.66%) raw meat samples were contaminated with H. pylori. Raw ovine meat (13.07%) had the uppermost contamination. H. pylori bacteria displayed the uppermost incidence of resistance toward tetracycline (82.69%), erythromycin (80.76%), trimethoprim (65.38%), levofloxacin (63.46%), and amoxicillin (63.46%). All H. pylori bacteria had at least resistance toward one antibiotic, even though incidence of resistance toward more than eight antibiotics was 28.84%. Total distribution of rdxA, pbp1A, gyrA, and cla antibiotic resistance genes were 59.61%, 51.92%, 69.23%, and 65.38%, respectively. VacA s1a (84.61%), s2 (76.92%), m1a (50%), m2 (39.13%), iceA1 (38.46%), and cagA (55.76%) were the most generally perceived alleles. S1am1a (63.46%), s2m1a (53.84%), s1am2 (51.92%), and s2m2 (42.30%) were the most generally perceived genotyping patterns. Frequency of cagA-, oipA-, and babA2- genotypes were 44.23%, 73.07%, and 80.76%, respectively. A total of 196 combined genotyping patterns were also perceived.
Conclusion: The role of raw meat, particularly ovine meat, in transmission of virulent and resistant H. pylori bacteria was determined. VacA and cagA genotypes had the higher incidence. CagE-, babA2-, and oipA- H. pylori bacteria had the higher distribution. Supplementary surveys are compulsory to originate momentous relations between distribution of genotypes, antibiotic resistance, and antibiotic resistance genes.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, antibiotic resistance, genotyping, raw meat

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]