Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic options for the management of HIV infection during pregnancy
Carmen D Zorrilla, Vivian Tamayo-Agrait
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, Maternal Infant Studies Center (CEMI), San Juan, Puerto Rico
Abstract: Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the treatment of HIV-1 infection using both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Optimal prevention of the MTCT of HIV requires antiretroviral drugs (ARV) during pregnancy, during labor, and to the infant. ARVs reduce viral replication, lowering maternal plasma viral load and thus the likelihood of MTCT. Postexposure prophylaxis of ARV agents in newborns protect against infection following potential exposure to maternal HIV during birth. In general, the choice of an ARV for treatment of HIV-infected women during pregnancy is complicated by the need to consider the effectiveness of the therapy for the maternal disease as well as the teratogenic or teratotoxic potential of these drugs. Clinicians managing HIV in pregnancy need to discuss the potential risks and benefits of available therapy options so that mothers can make informed decisions in choosing the best treatment regimen for themselves and for their children.
Keywords: HIV, pregnancy, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, antiretroviral agents
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