Pharmacokinetic evaluation of a transdermal anastrozole-in-adhesive formulation
Received 28 April 2018
Accepted for publication 19 September 2018
Published 1 November 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 3653—3664
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Sukesh Voruganti
Ralf Regenthal,1,* Margarita Voskanian,2,* Frank Baumann,1 Jens Teichert,1 Christian Brätter,2 Achim Aigner,1 Getu Abraham3
1Rudolf-Boehm-Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; 2Department Pharmaceutical Development, Formula GmbH, Pharmaceutical and Chemical Development Company, Berlin, Germany; 3Institute of Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Background and objective: Anastrozole is a well-established active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) used for the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer (BC) in postmenopausal women. However, treatment with the only available oral formulation is often associated with concentration-dependent serious side effects such as hot flashes, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, nausea, diarrhea, headache, and others. In contrast, a sustained-release system for the local application of anastrozole should minimize these serious adverse drug reactions.
Methods: Anastrozole-in-adhesive transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) were developed offering efficient loading, avoidance of inhomogeneity or crystallization of the drug, the desired controlled release kinetics, storage stability, easy handling, mechanical stability, and sufficient stickiness on the skin. In vitro continuous anastrozole release profiles were studied in Franz diffusion cells. In vivo, consecutive drug plasma kinetics from the final anastrozole transdermal system was tested in beagle dogs. For drug analysis, a specific validated liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method using fragment ion detection was developed and validated.
Results: After efficient drug loading, a linear and sustained 65% drug release from the TDDS over 48 h was obtained. In vivo data showed a favorable anastrozole plasma concentration–time course, avoiding side effect-associated peak concentrations as obtained after oral administration but matching therapeutic plasma levels up to 72 h.
Conclusion: These results provide the basis for establishing the transdermal application of anastrozole with improved pharmacokinetics and drug safety as novel therapeutic approach and promising option to treat human BC by decreasing the high burden of unwanted side effects.
Keywords: anastrozole, breast cancer, transdermal drug delivery system, pharmacokinetics, Franz diffusion cells
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