PES1 In Liver Cancer: A Prognostic Biomarker With Tumorigenic Roles
Received 8 August 2019
Accepted for publication 1 November 2019
Published 14 November 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 9641—9653
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Eileen O'Reilly
Zhuo Fu,1 Yan Jiao,2 Yan-Qing Li,3 Jian-Ji Ke,2 Yan-Hui Xu,4 Bao-Xing Jia,2 Bin Liu1
1Department of Hand and Foot Surgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pathophysiology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Digestive, China-Japan Union Hospital Affiliated to Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130033, People’s Republic of China
Correspondence: Bin Liu
Department of Hand and Foot Surgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, No. 71 Xinmin Street, Changchun, Jilin 130021, People’s Republic of China
Purpose: Liver cancer has a high incidence of mortality. DNA replication and posttranscriptional modifications play important roles in the development of liver cancer. Pescadillo (PES1) is a nuclear protein that is involved in embryonic development, ribosome synthesis, DNA replication, and cell cycle progression. Recently, abnormal PES1 expression was reported in several tumors, including neuroblastoma, colon cancer, gastric cancer, and breast cancer. Based on bio-informatic analysis, cell experiments and animal models, the aim of this study is to investigate the expression patterns and specific roles of PES1 in liver cancer.
Patients and methods: PES1 expression was represented by boxplots. The correlation between PES1 expression and clinical features was assessed by the chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact tests. Kaplan–Meier curves compared overall survival between different levels of PES1 expression, and Cox analysis selected potential variables associated with overall survival. The MTT assay investigated the proliferation rate, the scratch assay assessed the migratory ability, and the Transwell assay evaluated the invasion capacity of tumor cells in vitro. Animal models were used to confirm the tumorigenic roles of PES1 in vivo. GSEA illustrated the molecular mechanisms that PES1 participated in.
Results: We found that PES1 was highly expressed in liver cancer tissues, served as a diagnostic marker, and correlated with poor overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) in patients. In vitro studies indicated that PES1 promoted tumor cell proliferation (P=0.0034), migration (P=0.0026), and invasion (P=0.0008), and this tumorigenic role was confirmed in animal models. GSEA further illuminated molecular mechanisms that PES1 participated in liver cancer occurrence and progression.
Conclusion: This study suggested that PES1 was upregulated in liver cancer and correlated with poor prognosis, by promoting tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and PES1 may be a novel diagnostic and prognostic bio-marker and a promising therapeutic target in liver cancer.
Keywords: liver cancer, PES1, diagnosis, tumorigenesis, prognosis
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