Persistent Uncontrolled Asthma: Long-Term Impact on Physical Activity and Body Composition
Received 30 December 2020
Accepted for publication 19 February 2021
Published 12 March 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 229—240
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Luis Garcia-Marcos
Mustafa Abdo,1 Benjamin Waschki,2 Anne-Marie Kirsten,3 Frederik Trinkmann,4,5 Heike Biller,1 Christian Herzmann,6 Erika von Mutius,7 Matthias Kopp,8,9 Gesine Hansen,10 Klaus F Rabe,1 Thomas Bahmer,1,11,* Henrik Watz3,* On behalf of the ALLIANCE study group
1LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Airway Research Center North (ARCN), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Grosshansdorf, Germany; 2Department of Cardiology and Pneumology at Hospital Itzehoe, Itzehoe, Germany; 3Pulmonary Research Institute at the LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Airway Research Center North (ARCN), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Grosshansdorf, Germany; 4Department of Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik, University of Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Heidelberg, Germany; 5Department of Biomedical Informatics, Heinrich-Lanz-Center, University Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany; 6Research Center Borstel, Airway Research Center North (ARCN), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Borstel, Germany; 7Dr von Hauner Children’s Hospital, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich (CPC-M), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Munich, Germany; 8Department of Pediatric Respiratory Medicine, Inselspital, University Children’s Hospital of Bern, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 9Division of Pediatric Pneumology & Allergology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein-Campus Luebeck, Airway Research Center North (ARCN), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Luebeck, Germany; 10Department of Paediatric Pneumology, Allergology and Neonatology, Hannover Medical School, Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease (BREATH), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Hannover, Germany; 11University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein-Campus Kiel, Department for Internal Medicine I, Airway Research Center North (ARCN), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Kiel, Germany
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Correspondence: Mustafa Abdo
LungenClinic Grosshansdorf GmbH, Airway Research Center North (ARCN), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Wöhrendamm 80, Großhansdorf, 22927, Germany
Tel +49 4102 601 2412
Email [email protected]
Rationale: Asthma, obesity and physical activity (PA) are interrelated. However, longitudinal data with objective PA measures and direct assessment of body composition are still lacking.
Objective: To study the impact of symptom control on PA and body composition.
Methods: In a longitudinal cohort study of the German Center for Lung Research, we assessed the body composition of 233 asthma patients and 84 healthy controls using bioelectrical impedance analysis. PA (ie average daily steps and time of at least moderate activity, steps/min) was measured by accelerometry for one week. Asthma control was assessed by ACT score, ACQ-5 score and history of severe exacerbations. After two years of follow-up, we studied changes in physical activity and body composition in relation to asthma control.
Results: Patients with uncontrolled asthma had increased fat mass and decreased muscle mass compared to patients with controlled asthma or healthy controls. Both fat mass and muscle mass correlated better with asthma control than the body mass index (BMI). In multivariate regressions adjusted for age and sex, asthma control and physical activity were independent predictors of body composition (R2 = 0.61, p < 0.001). Persistent uncontrolled asthma patients (n=64) had lower physical activity at both baseline (6614 steps/118 min) and follow-up (6195/115). Despite having stable BMI, they also had significant muscle loss (− 1.2%, − 0.88 kg, p< 0.01) and fat accumulation (+1%, +1.1 kg, p< 0.01). By contrast, temporarily uncontrolled or controlled asthma patients had higher physical activity at baseline (8670/156) and follow -up (9058/153) with almost unchanged body composition.
Conclusion: Persistent uncontrolled asthma is associated with sustained physical inactivity and adverse changes in body composition that might be overlooked by relying solely on BMI. Physical activity is an independent predictor of body composition and reliable long-term marker of symptom control.
Keywords: symptom control, physical activity, body composition, fat mass, muscle mass, BMI
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