Pegademase bovine (PEG-ADA) for the treatment of infants and children with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID
Claire Booth1,2, H Bobby Gaspar1,2
1Centre for Immunodeficiency, Molecular Immunology Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK; 2Dept of Clinical Immunology, Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Trust, London, UK
Abstract: Adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA) is a rare, inherited disorder of purine metabolism characterized by immunodeficiency, failure to thrive and metabolic abnormalities. A lack of the enzyme ADA allows accumulation of toxic metabolites causing defects of both cell mediated and humoral immunity leading to ADA severe combined immune deficiency (SCID), a condition that can be fatal in early infancy if left untreated. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant is curative but is dependent on a good donor match. Other therapeutic options include enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with pegademase bovine (PEG-ADA) and more recently gene therapy. PEG-ADA has been used in over 150 patients worldwide and has allowed stabilization of patients awaiting more definitive treatment with hematopoietic stem cell transplant. It affords both metabolic detoxification and protective immune function with patients remaining clinically well, but immune reconstitution is often suboptimal and may not be long lived. We discuss the pharmacokinetics, immune reconstitution, effects on systemic disease and side effects of treatment with PEG-ADA. We also review the long-term outcome of patients receiving ERT and discuss the role of PEG-ADA in the management of infants and children with ADA-SCID, alongside other therapeutic options.
Keywords: adenosine deaminase deficiency, PEG-ADA, enzyme replacement therapy, severe combined immune deficiency (SCID)
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