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Pediatric acute kidney injury: prevalence, impact and management challenges

Authors Ciccia E, Devarajan P

Received 20 December 2016

Accepted for publication 28 February 2017

Published 29 March 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 77—84

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJNRD.S103785

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Pravin Singhal

Eileen Ciccia, Prasad Devarajan

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA

Abstract: The incidence of pediatric acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasing globally, as are the associated morbidities and mortality. A recent standardization of the definition of AKI has allowed for a more accurate assessment of the epidemiology of pediatric AKI. Recent advances in leveraging electronic medical health record systems have allowed for real-time risk stratification and prevention of pediatric AKI in the hospital setting. Newly developed and validated clinical scores have improved our ability to predict AKI and provide a rational context for biomarker utilization in hospitalized children. Novel non-invasive diagnostic and predictive biomarkers have been launched globally to improve our ability to diagnose and predict AKI and its adverse outcomes as well as recovery. This review summarizes the most current literature, focusing on the epidemiology, management, and early diagnostic strategies in pediatric AKI.

Keywords:
acute kidney injury, acute renal failure, children, epidemiology, biomarkers, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin

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