Participation of women in HIV clinical trials: the IPEC-FIOCRUZ experience
Jordan E Lake1, Ruth K Friedman2, Cynthia B Cunha2, Sandra W Cardoso2, Valdilea G Veloso2, Judith S Currier1, Beatriz Grinsztejn2
1Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Fundação Oswaldo Cruz – Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas/IPEC, Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Background: Fifty percent of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) worldwide are female. In Brazil, for example, 240,000 women are infected with HIV, rates of infection in women have increased over the last two decades, and addressing HIV prevention and treatment for women at risk for, or living with, HIV/AIDS remains a challenge. To better address the needs of women living with HIV in Brazil, the Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas – Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (IPEC-FIOCRUZ) HIV Women’s Cohort was established in 1996 to study the natural history of women seeking HIV care. This analysis describes the characteristics of women in the cohort who participated in HIV clinical trials between 1999 and 2008.
Methods: A total of 736 Women’s Cohort participants were in active follow-up and 665 participants from the Women’s Cohort were included in univariable and multivariable analyses to determine socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors associated with women’s participation in HIV clinical trials at our site.
Results: Of the complete cohort, 23% participated in a clinical trial between January 1999 and July 2008. Odds of participation decreased for women who were younger than 35 years old, currently employed, had an HIV-positive sexual partner, and/or who reported a lifetime history of illicit drug use. Alternatively, the odds of participation increased for women who had more than 8 years of formal education, were living independently, and/or were married or cohabitating.
Conclusion: The rate of participation in HIV clinical trials by women in the IPEC-Fiocruz Cohort was similar to other published cohorts, but identification of local risk factors and barriers to participation remains important. Our analysis offers a novel description of the factors associated with participation in HIV clinical trials among women in care at IPEC-FIOCRUZ in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Keywords: AIDS, Brazil, South America, clinical trial participation
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