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Osteoimmunology of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-6, and RANTES/CCL5: a review of known and poorly understood inflammatory patterns in osteonecrosis

Authors Lechner J, Rudi T, von Baehr V

Received 19 August 2018

Accepted for publication 3 October 2018

Published 9 November 2018 Volume 2018:10 Pages 251—262

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CCIDE.S184498

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Christopher Okunseri


Johann Lechner,1 Tatjana Rudi,2 Volker von Baehr3

1Clinic for Integrative Dentistry, Munich 81547, Germany; 2Institute for Epidemiological Studies, Berlin 10709, Germany; 3Department of Immunology and Allergology, Institute for Medical Diagnostics in MVZ GbR, Berlin 12247, Germany

Background: The immune and bone systems are closely linked via cytokine cross-talk. This interdisciplinary field of research is referred to as osteoimmunology and pertains to inflammatory and osteoarticular diseases that feature the primary expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6.
Objective: Are there bone resorptive processes wherein chronic inflammatory conditions are not linked to TNF-α and IL-6 expression, but rather to the expression of other cytokines?
Materials and methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed Central.
Discussion: Although all diseases with cytokines involved in bone resorption (TNF-α and IL-6) are at the forefront of destructive inflammatory processes, there is one exception in the literature: fatty oxide osteoporosis/osteolysis in the jawbone (FDOJ), which is associated with significant bone softening. However, it should be noted that TNF-α and IL-6 fall below the levels found in a healthy jawbone in this condition. Another conspicuous finding is that there is a nearly 35-fold overexpression of the chemokine RANTES/CCL5 (R/C) in all FDOJ cases studied thus far in the literature.
Conclusion: FDOJ appears to represent a unique cytokine and inflammatory pattern from osteolysis in the body. R/C can be defined as the dominant carrier of a “maxillomandibular osteoimmunology”.

Keywords: bone resorption, chemokine RANTES, CCL5, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, maxillomandibular osteoimmunology, maxillomandibular
 

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