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Oral mineralocorticoid antagonists for recalcitrant central serous chorioretinopathy

Authors Chin E, Almeida D, Roybal CN, Niles P, Gehrs K, Sohn E, Boldt C, Russell S, Folk J

Received 21 April 2015

Accepted for publication 26 May 2015

Published 11 August 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 1449—1456


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

Eric K Chin, David RP Almeida, C Nathaniel Roybal, Philip I Niles, Karen M Gehrs, Elliott H Sohn, H Culver Boldt, Stephen R Russell, James C Folk

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA

Purpose: To evaluate the effect and tolerance of oral mineralocorticoid antagonists, eplerenone and/or spironolactone, in recalcitrant central serous chorioretinopathy.
Methods: Retrospective consecutive observational case series. Primary outcome measures included central macular thickness (CMT, µm), macular volume (MV, mm3), Snellen visual acuity, and prior treatment failures. Secondary outcomes included duration of treatment, treatment dosage, and systemic side effects.
Results: A total of 120 patients with central serous chorioretinopathy were reviewed, of which 29 patients were treated with one or more mineralocorticoid antagonists. The average age of patients was 58.4 years. Sixteen patients (69.6%) were recalcitrant to other interventions prior to treatment with oral mineralocorticoid antagonists, with an average washout period of 15.3 months. The average duration of mineralocorticoid antagonist treatment was 3.9±2.3 months. Twelve patients (52.2%) showed decreased CMT and MV, six patients (26.1%) had increase in both, and five patients (21.7%) had negligible changes. The mean decrease in CMT of all patients was 42.4 µm (range, -136 to 255 µm): 100.7 µm among treatment-naïve patients, and 16.9 µm among recalcitrant patients. The mean decrease in MV of all patients was 0.20 mm3 (range, -2.33 to 2.90 mm3): 0.6 mm3 among treatment-naïve patients, and 0.0 mm3 among recalcitrant patients. Median visual acuity at the start of therapy was 20/30 (range, 20/20–20/250), and at final follow-up it was 20/40 (range, 20/20–20/125). Nine patients (39.1%) experienced systemic side effects, of which three patients (13.0%) were unable to continue therapy.
Conclusion: Mineralocorticoid antagonist treatment had a positive treatment effect in half of our patients. The decrease in CMT and MV was much less in the recalcitrant group compared to the treatment-naïve group. An improvement in vision was seen only in the treatment-naïve group. Systemic side effects, even at low doses, may limit its usage in some patients.

Keywords: central serous chorioretinopathy, mineralocorticoid antagonist, eplerenone, spironolactone, corticosteroids, central macular thickness, macular volume

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