Optimization of nebulized delivery of linezolid, daptomycin, and vancomycin aerosol
Authors Zarogoulidis P, Kioumis I, Lampaki S, Organtzis J, Porpodis K, Spyratos D, Pitsiou G, Petridis D, Pataka A, Huang H, Li Q, Yarmus L, Hohenforst-Schmidt W, Pezirkianidis N, Zarogoulidis K
Received 21 April 2014
Accepted for publication 28 May 2014
Published 12 August 2014 Volume 2014:8 Pages 1065—1072
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Paul Zarogoulidis,1 Ioannis Kioumis,1 Sofia Lampaki,1 John Organtzis,1 Konstantinos Porpodis,1 Dionysios Spyratos,1 Georgia Pitsiou,1 Dimitris Petridis,2 Athanasia Pataka,1 Haidong Huang,3 Qiang Li,3 Lonny Yarmus,4 Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt,5 Nikolaos Pezirkianidis,6 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis1
1Pulmonary Department-Oncology Unit, “G Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Department of Food Technology, School of Food Technology and Nutrition, Alexander Technological Educational Institute, Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Department of Respiratory Diseases, Shanghai Hospital, II Military University Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5II Medical Department, “Coburg” Regional Hospital, Coburg, Germany; 6Surgery Department, Private Cabinet, Serres, Greece
Background: At this time, several antibiotics have been investigated as possibilities for aerosol administration, but local therapy has been found to be more efficient in several diseases.
Materials and methods: The drugs linezolid (Zyvox), vancomycin (Voncon), and daptomycin (Cubicin) were tested with three jet nebulizers with seven different residual cups and different loadings. Moreover, three ultrasound nebulizers were again tested with these drugs, with different loadings and mouthpiece attachments.
Results: When drugs are combined with particular cup designs, they significantly lower the droplet size to 1.60 and 1.80 µm, which represents the best combination of Zyvox and cup G and Cubicin and cup D, respectively. Cup design D is suggested as the most effective cup for lowering the droplet size (2.30 µm) when considering a higher loading level (8 mL).
Conclusion: Modification of current drugs from dry powder to solution is possible, and the residual cup design plays the most important role in droplet size production when the nebulization systems have the same properties.
Keywords: vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin, aerosol, jet nebulizers, ultrasound nebulizers
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