Olive oil in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis after artificial menopause
Authors Liu H, Huang H, Li B, Wu D, Wang F, Zheng X, Chen Q, Wu B, Fan X
Received 30 July 2014
Accepted for publication 26 September 2014
Published 2 December 2014 Volume 2014:9 Pages 2087—2095
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 4
Editor who approved publication: Dr Zhi-Ying Wu
Huilan Liu,* Huijuan Huang,* Boheng Li, Dong Wu, Fengmei Wang, Xiao hua Zheng, Qingxia Chen, Bifang Wu, Xiaojie Fan
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, East Hospital, Xiamen University, Fuzhou, Fujian, People’s Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-osteoporosis effect of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in vivo, and explore its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties in Sprague Dawley rats and its anticancer properties in patients.
Materials and methods: A total of 120 healthy female Sprague Dawley rats aged 6 months were divided into four groups: 1) sham-operated control (Sham group, n=30); 2) ovariectomized (OVX group, n=30); 3) ovariectomized rats supplemented with EVOO (OVX + Olive, n=30); 4) ovariectomized rats supplemented with estrogen (OVX + E2, n=30). EVOO and estrogen were administered by oral gavage at a dose of 1 mL/100 g weight on a daily basis for 12 consecutive weeks. Twelve weeks later blood samples were obtained to detect the levels of calcium, alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, interleukin-6 (IL-6), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), and nitrate content. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometer measured bone mineral density (BMD) of ovariectomized Sprague Dawley rats that had been fed olive oil for 3 months. Blood samples from patients, who regularly consumed olive oil over a 1 year period were also used to measure carbohydrate antigen 125, carcino-embryonic antigen, α-fetoprotein, and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels. BMD of lumbar spine and left femur was also evaluated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.
Results: Animal experiments showed that EVOO significantly increased BMD and decreased phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, IL-6, MDA, and nitrate levels. However, it had no significant effect on the Ca2+ level. In clinical follow-up, EVOO also improved patient BMD levels on L3, L4, and left femoral neck, and reduced carbohydrate antigen 125, α-fetoprotein, and carcino-embryonic antigen levels. But it had no significant effect on the carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level.
Conclusion: EVOO illustrated significant anti-osteoporosis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties in vivo. However, further studies are required to determine the active component(s) responsible for these effects.
Keywords: olive oil, prevention, treatment, osteoporosis, artificial menopause
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