Ocular findings in Japanese children with Down syndrome: the course of visual acuity and refraction, and systemic and ocular anomalies
Authors Terai T, Eda S, Sugasawa J, Tonari M, Matsuo J, Oku H, Ikeda T
Received 23 March 2018
Accepted for publication 12 June 2018
Published 31 August 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 1637—1643
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Andrew Yee
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Tomoko Terai,1,2 Shohei Eda,1,2 Jun Sugasawa,2 Masahiro Tonari,2 Junko Matsuo,2 Hidehiro Oku,2 Tsunehiko Ikeda2
1Department of Ophthalmology, Shiga Medical Center for Children, Moriyama-City, Shiga, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki-City, Osaka, Japan
Purpose: To investigate the age-related development of refractive errors and changes of visual acuity (VA), and the systemic and ocular anomalies in Japanese children and young adults with Down syndrome (DS).
Design: Retrospective cohort study.
Subjects and methods: This study involved 222 Japanese children and young adults with DS (age range: 3 months to 19 years) seen at the Department of Ophthalmology, Shiga Medical Center for Children, Shiga, Japan. The subjects were divided into the following six age groups: 1) infant (age 0 to <4 years), 2) preschool (age 4 to <7 years), 3) lower primary-school grades (age 7 to <10 years), 4) upper primary-school grades (age 10 to <13 years), 5) junior high school (age 13 to <16 years), and 6) late teen/young adults (age 16 to <20 years). Through examination of the subjects’ medical charts, we investigated the development and changes of refractive errors and VA, best-corrected VA (BCVA), and systemic and ocular anomalies.
Results: For vision testing, Teller Acuity Cards™ (Bernell Corporation) were used for the infants, and the Landolt ring was used for the school-age children. VA was found to develop with age. Mean BCVA was 0.19±0.17 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (mean age: 11.3±3.2 years). Mean of refractive errors was hyperopia in the infant (2.2±2.4 diopters [D] OD, 2.4±2.5D OS), yet became myopia to the junior high school (-0.3±4.4D OD, -0.2±4.4D OS).
Conclusion: Our findings revealed that in children and in late-teen and young-adult subjects with DS, VA slowly develops and that refractive errors requiring correction exist and are difficult to examine.
Keywords: astigmatism, Down syndrome, hyperopia, refraction, visual acuity
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